为了解决集约养蚕技术体系生态效能不足, 蚕业生产废弃物污染农村生态环境问题, 在集约养蚕技术体系构架上, 以桑树年生物合成总干物质利用率为衡量指标, 采用技术生产力效能与生态效能平衡集合评价方法, 对集成到生态蚕业技术体系内的各单项技术进行技术效益、经济效益和生态效益的"三效"平衡评价; 应用蚕业资源物质生产利用技术模式和回流利用技术模式, 优化蚕业资源物质流向利用方式, 控制生产过程废弃物污染农村生态环境程度, 形成以桑枝食用菌产业化生产链、蚕沙沼气治污和缫丝生产废水循环利用链为构架的生态蚕业技术体系。生态蚕业技术体系在秦巴山区农村应用以来, 有效提高了蚕业生产技术的生态效能, 蚕业资源物质生产利用效率提高了20.8%, 回流利用效率达52.9%, 环境水资源循环利用效率达70.4%, 排放废水的CODCr(采用重铬酸钾作为氧化剂测定出的化学需氧量)<85 mg·L-1, 达到国家《污水综合排放标准》(GB8978-96), 有效减轻了蚕业生产污染农村环境的程度, 改善了秦巴山区农村生态环境状况。
Sericulture production technology has gradually changed from dispersed small-scale mode to intensive large-scale mode in China. This has greatly increased not only labor force production efficiency in sericulture, but also rural sericulture production income. Concurrently, however, the ecological effectiveness has been insufficient for intensive sericulture technology system. Sericultural production waste has polluted rural ecological environments. To resolve the issue of ecological inefficiency in sericulture technology system and low used efficiency of sericulture resource material, a research was conducted on intensive sericulture technology framework using utilization ratio of annually biosynthesized dry matter in mulberry as a measurement index. For evaluation, the balance was set for technology productivity efficiency and ecological efficiency. Under an integrated eco-sericulture technology system, individual technological balance was evaluated in terms of three efficiencies - technological efficiency, economic efficiency and ecological efficiency. This innovative application of production mode and reflux mode in sericulture resource material optimized sericulture resource material use mode, controlled pollution degree of production wastes in rural ecological environments and formed eco-sericulture technology system frameworks. The frameworks included mulberry branch edible fungus industry production chain, silkworm excrement biogas control pollution and recycled link of filature waste water. Application of eco-sericulture technology system in rural Qin-Ba Mountain Area improved ecological efficiency of sericulture production technology, significantly increased use efficiency of sericulture resource material and environmental water resource and improved rural ecological environment conditions. The estimates for Shiquan County in Shaanxi Province suggested that production and utilization efficiency of sericulture resource material increased by 20.8%, mulberry branch edible fungus industry production was at 10 million bag·a-1, reflux utilization increased by 52.9%, avoided loss of sericulture resource materials, recycled environment water resources ratio was at 70.4% and total circulation water recovery/utilization was at 992 m-3·d-1. Discharged waste water CODCr (the chemical oxygen demand was used by potassium dichromate as oxidant) was <85 mg·L-1, which met national standards - Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-96). Eco-sericulture technology system therefore not only reduced pollution from sericulture production in rural ecological environments, but also stabilized sustainable development of sericulture production in the Qin-Ba Mountain Area.