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太行山前平原40年冬小麦作物系数变化及影响因素研究

李昊天 李璐 闫宗正 高聪帅 韩琳娜 张喜英

李昊天, 李璐, 闫宗正, 高聪帅, 韩琳娜, 张喜英. 太行山前平原40年冬小麦作物系数变化及影响因素研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(0): 1−14 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210342
引用本文: 李昊天, 李璐, 闫宗正, 高聪帅, 韩琳娜, 张喜英. 太行山前平原40年冬小麦作物系数变化及影响因素研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(0): 1−14 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210342
LI H T, LI L, YAN Z Z, GAO C S, HAN L N, ZHANG X Y. Changes and influencing factors for crop coefficient of winter wheat during the past 40 years in Taihang Piedmont Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(0): 1−14 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210342
Citation: LI H T, LI L, YAN Z Z, GAO C S, HAN L N, ZHANG X Y. Changes and influencing factors for crop coefficient of winter wheat during the past 40 years in Taihang Piedmont Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(0): 1−14 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210342

太行山前平原40年冬小麦作物系数变化及影响因素研究

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210342
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFE0130500)资助和河北省创新团体项目(D2021503001)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李昊天, 主要从事农田节水机理与技术研究。E-mail: lihaotian19@mails.ucas.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    张喜英, 主要从事农田节水机理与技术研究。E-mail: xyzhang@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S512.11

Changes and influencing factors for crop coefficient of winter wheat during the past 40 years in Taihang Piedmont Plain

Funds: Supported by the National Key Research and Development Project of China (2017YFE0130500) and Hebei innovation group project (D2021503001)
More Information
  • 摘要: 作物系数是计算作物需水量的基本参数, 准确确定作物系数在优化灌溉管理方面有重要作用。作物系数随作物生长及环境条件发生变化, 研究作物系数如何受生产条件和气象条件变化的影响, 可为准确确定作物系数提供依据。本研究基于中国科学院栾城农业生态系统试验站1980—2020年40余年间冬小麦在充分灌溉条件下的实际蒸散量, 研究冬小麦作物系数的变化规律; 并利用最近3年的试验数据, 明确现代生产水平下影响冬小麦作物系数的主导因素。结果表明, 1980—2020年间冬小麦在充分供水条件下的实际蒸散量及参考作物蒸散量多年平均值分别为434.7 mm和550.8 mm, 参考作物蒸散量年际相对稳定, 冬小麦实际蒸散量增加12.5%。作物系数多年平均值为0.80, 其中1980—1990、1991—2000、2001—2010、2011—2020平均分别为0.76、0.80、0.81和0.84; 40年间冬小麦产量增加了45.6%, 作物系数增加了11.6%, 作物产量提升是作物系数升高的主要原因。本研究表明在现状生产条件下, 叶面积指数、生物量是影响作物系数的重要因素, 在叶面积指数较高的情况下作物系数主要受饱和水汽压差及环境温度的影响, 2018—2020冬小麦3个生育期作物系数分别是0.79、0.86、0.79; 生育期蒸散量均值为442.3 mm, 主要生育期3年平均作物系数分别为播种—越冬前0.70、越冬期间0.42、返青—拔节期0.76、拔节—抽穗期1.18、抽穗—灌浆期1.39、成熟期0.96。本研究结果显示作物系数并不是稳定不变的, 而是受作物生产力和大气蒸散力的影响。因此, 在利用作物系数和参考作物蒸散量评价作物需水量时, 需要综合考虑上述因素。
  • 图  1  1980—2020年冬小麦生长季气象参数及敏感系数

    折线图为冬小麦生长季气象因子的年际变化, 数值对应主坐标轴。柱图表示气象因子敏感系数的年际变化, 数值对应次坐标轴。SAT: 平均温度敏感系, SSH: 日照时数敏感系数, SWS: 平均风速敏感系数数, SRH: 相对湿度敏感系数。The lines show the interannual variation of meteorological factors, and their values corresponding to the principal coordinate axis. The columns show the interannual variation of sensitivity coefficient of meteorological factors, and their values corresponding to the secondary coordinate axis. SAT: Sensitivity coefficient of average temperature. SSH: Sensitivity coefficient of sunshine hours. SWS: Sensitivity coefficient of average wind speed. SRH: Sensitivity coefficient of relative humidity.

    Figure  1.  Changes in meteorological factors and their sensitivity coefficients during winter wheat growing seasons from 1980 to 2020

    图  2  冬小麦生长季参考作物蒸散量及降雨量变化(1980—2020年)

    Figure  2.  Changes in reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) and seasonal rainfall during winter wheat growing seasons from 1980 to 2020

    图  3  1980—2020年充分供水条件下冬小麦产量及蒸散量的变化

    Figure  3.  Seasonal variations of yield and evapotranspiration (ET) of winter wheat under sufficient water supply from 1980 to 2020

    图  4  1980—2020年充分供水条件下冬小麦作物系数的变化

    Figure  4.  Seasonal variations of crop coefficient of winter wheat under sufficient water supply from 1980 to 2020.

    图  5  1980—2020年充分供水冬小麦作物系数与蒸散量、参考作物蒸散量相关分析

    Figure  5.  Correlation analysis of crop coefficient, evapotranspiration, and reference crop evapotranspiration during winter wheat growing season under full water supply from 1980 to 2020

    图  6  1980—2020年充分供水冬小麦作物系数与产量、生物量相关分析

    Figure  6.  Correlation analysis of crop coefficient, yield and biomass of winter wheat under sufficient water supply from 1980 to 2020

    图  7  2017—2020年充分供水处理冬小麦作物系数及降雨量的变化

    Figure  7.  Changes in crop coefficients during the growing seasons of 2017−2020 for winter wheat and the distribution of rainfall and irrigation during the three seasons

    图  8  2017—2020年充分供水处理冬小麦平均生物量及叶面积指数变化

    Figure  8.  Changes in biomass and leaf area index during three growing seasons of winter wheat under sufficient water supply during 2017 to 2020

    图  9  2017—2020年冬小麦主要生育期作物系数与生物量、叶面积指数的相关关系分析

    Figure  9.  Correlation analysis between crop coefficients with biomass and leaf area index of winter wheat during different growth stages for three seasons of 2017/18, 2018/19 and 2019/20

    图  10  2017—2020年冬小麦各生育期作物系数与饱和水汽压差、温度相关性分析

    Figure  10.  Correlation analysis between crop coefficient with saturated water vapor pressure difference and air temperature during different growing stages of winter wheat for three seasons of 2017/18, 2018/19, 2019/20

    表  1  试验地点不同层次土壤物理特征

    Table  1.   Soil physical characteristics at different soil layers for the experimental site

    深度
    Depth (cm)
    土壤质地
    Texture
    容重
    Bulk density (g∙cm−3)
    田间持水量
    Field capacity (%)
    凋萎系数
    Wilting point (%)
    饱和导水率
    Saturated hydraulic
    conductivity (m∙day−1)
    0~20沙壤土 Sand loam1.4136.19.61.090
    20~35沙壤土 Sand loam1.5135.011.40.434
    35~65轻壤土 Light loam1.4733.413.90.730
    65~90中壤土 Middle loam1.5134.213.90.713
    90~145砂质黏壤土 Sandy clay loam1.5434.712.90.020
    145~170黏壤土 Sandy clay loam1.6439.313.90.003
    170~200砂质黏壤土 Sandy clay loam1.5938.516.40.016
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  试验地点冬小麦田间管理措施变化(1980—2020年)

    Table  2.   Field management measures for the experimental plot during1980−2020 for winter wheat

    时期
    Period
    栽培品种
    Cultivars
    年总施肥量*
    Annual fertilizer amounts
    耕作与秸秆处理
    Tillage and straw management
    1980—1990‘冀麦22’
    ‘Jimai 22’
    N 150~200 kg∙hm−2; P2O5 80~100 kg∙hm−2小麦和玉米秸秆在人工收获后移除; 通过安装于拖拉机上的犁在冬小麦播种前进行
    翻耕。
    Straw of wheat and maize was removed from the field manually; Soil was cultivated using a plough mounted on a tractor before sowing wheat.
    1991—1998‘冀麦24’
    ‘Jimai 24’
    N 250~300 kg∙hm−2; P2O5100~150 kg∙hm−2
    联合收割机收获冬小麦并将秸秆覆盖于田间, 夏玉米秸秆于冬小麦播种前人工清除。耕作方式不变。
    Wheat was harvested by combine and wheat straw was left in the field as mulch, straw of summer maize was manually removed before winter wheat sowing. The farming method unchanged.
    1998—2003“石4185”
    ‘Shi 4185’
    N 300~350kg∙hm−2; P2O5130~170 kg∙hm−2;
    K2O 20 kg∙hm−2
    两种作物全部实行秸秆还田, 其中玉米秸秆机械粉碎后, 于冬小麦播种前旋耕与上层土壤混合。耕种方式不变。
    Straw from winter wheat and maize was both returned to the field, with winter wheat straw left on the soil surface after harvesting. Maize straw was cut into small pieces after maize harvesting. Before sowing winter wheat, rotary tillage was applied twice to mix the straw with the top soil layer.
    2004—2009‘7221’及‘科农199’
    ‘7221’ and ‘kenong199’
    N 300~350 kg∙hm−2; P2O5150~180 kg∙hm−2;
    K2O 20 kg∙hm−2

    秸秆处理方式不变。使用新式旋耕法逐渐代替传统耕作法。每隔2~3年深耕一次。
    The same straw and tillage management as above, with deep plough added every 2−3 years.
    2009—2020‘科农199’及石新‘633’
    ‘Kenong199’ and ‘Shixin633’
    N 400~425 kg∙hm−2; P2O5180~200 kg∙hm−2;
    K2O 90 kg∙hm−2
    秸秆处理和耕作方式同上。
    The same straw and tillage management as above.
      年总施肥量是小麦、玉米一年两季的用量。其中N通过尿素施入, N含量约为46%; P2O5采用磷酸二铵, 含P2O5 46%, N 16%; K2O采用氯化钾, 含K2O 62%。1/4的尿素、全部磷酸二铵和氯化钾在冬小麦耕种前施入, 剩余的尿素在冬小麦拔节和玉米大喇叭口等量追肥施入。The annual fertilizer application was the total amount of fertilizers applied to both winter wheat and summer maize. N fertilizer was urea containing 46% N; P2O5 fertilizer was diammonium phosphate containing 46% P2O5 and 16% N; and K2O fertilizer was potassium chloride containing 62% K2O. One-fourth of urea, all the diammonium phosphate and potassium chloride were applied before tillage at sowing winter wheat. All the other urea was divided equally applied to winter wheat at jointing stage and maize at 9th leaf stage.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  2017—2020年冬小麦生长季气象条件

    Table  3.   Weather conditions during winter wheat growing seasons from 2017 to 2020

    气象要素 Meteorological factors2017—20182018—20192019—2020多年平均 Long-term average from 1980 to 2020
    降水 Precipitation (mm)135.0114.7106.2120.07
    正积温 Positive accumulated temperature (℃)2089.12101.92205.71941.2
    日照时数 Sunshine hours (h)1229.41193.81082.71263.9
    日均风速 Average daily wind speed (m∙s−1)1.20.90.91.3
    相对湿度 Relative humidity (%)59.459.257.565.9
    参考作物蒸散量 Reference crop evapotranspiration (mm)542.5538.8551.5542.1
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-06-02
  • 录用日期:  2021-07-29
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-27

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