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有机栽培条件下种苗大小对党参成药特性的影响

刘兰兰 郭凤霞 陈垣 陈永中 王红燕 张碧全 郭爱惠

刘兰兰, 郭凤霞, 陈垣, 陈永中, 王红燕, 张碧全, 郭爱惠. 有机栽培条件下种苗大小对党参成药特性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(0): 1−11 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210188
引用本文: 刘兰兰, 郭凤霞, 陈垣, 陈永中, 王红燕, 张碧全, 郭爱惠. 有机栽培条件下种苗大小对党参成药特性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(0): 1−11 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210188
LIU L L, GUO F X, CHEN Y, CHEN Y Z, WANG H Y, ZHANG B Q, GUO A H. Effect of seedling size on medicinal formation property for Codonopsis pilosula under organic cultivated conditions[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(0): 1−11 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210188
Citation: LIU L L, GUO F X, CHEN Y, CHEN Y Z, WANG H Y, ZHANG B Q, GUO A H. Effect of seedling size on medicinal formation property for Codonopsis pilosula under organic cultivated conditions[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(0): 1−11 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210188

有机栽培条件下种苗大小对党参成药特性的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210188
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1706301)、教育部精准扶贫项目(XZ20190326)、甘肃省农业农村厅中药材专项计划(GARS-ZYC-1, XZ20190409)和甘肃农业大学SRTP项目(202001011)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘兰兰, 主要研究方向为药用植物生态生理。E-mail: 1522412948@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    郭凤霞, 主要研究方向为药用植物生态生理, E-mail: guofx@gsau.edu.cn.com

    陈垣, 主要研究方向为药用植物资源与利用, E-mail: cygcx1963@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S156.4;S567.2

Effect of seedling size on medicinal formation property for Codonopsis pilosula under organic cultivated conditions

Funds: This study was supported by the National Key R&D Project of China (2018YFC1706301), the Targeted Poverty Alleviation Project of the Ministry of Education of China (XZ20190326), the Special Project for Chinese Medicinal Materials of Gansu Provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs (GARS-ZYC-1, XZ20190409) and the SRTP of Gansu Agricultural University (202001011)
More Information
  • 摘要: 生态栽培是中药材产业发展的必然趋势。党参种苗大小参差不齐, 为了探明种苗大小对其成药特性的影响, 将种苗分为大苗(BS)、中苗(MS)、小苗(SS)和特小苗(SLS), 并进行全程有机肥栽培, 系统比较各级种苗的成药产量特性。结果表明, 不同大小种苗返青后阶段性异速生长趋势明显, 种苗越大返青越早, 前期长势越强但中后期减弱越明显, 侧根数显著增加, 根显著伸长, 根含水量高, 发病率越高; 而种苗越小返青率越低, 但返青株抗病性越强, 成活率越高, 前期长势弱但中后期加快。导致不同大小种苗的成药株个体和群体的产量差异性并不显著, 平均鲜药材产量MS和SS组最高(8225.1 kg·hm–2)和次之(8125.0 kg·hm–2), 较BS组分别提高23.4%和21.9%, 较SLS组分别提高45.2%和43.4%; 平均干药材产量SS和MS组最高(2938.1 kg·hm–2)和次之(2681.1 kg·hm–2), 较BS组分别提高37.8%和25.7%, 较SLS组分别提高53.6%和40.1%。各级种苗成药根发病率差异性虽不显著, 依次为BS(6.4%)、MS (6%)、SS(3.9%)和SLS(3.6%), 但发病程度差异性极显著, MS和BS的病情指数分别为4.66%和2.93%, 均较SLS (1.32%)和SS (0.97%)极显著增大(P<0.01)。综评指数排序为SS (0.734)>SLS (0.636)>MS (0.409)>BS (0.282)。这说明有机栽培党参药材产出性能并不随种苗增大而提高, 党参种苗可塑性强, 在成药期建植策略不同, 研究结果打破了对党参种苗选留的传统认知, 建议生产上不要盲目追求大苗, 轻易淘汰特小苗, 特小苗可适当增加移栽密度和生态防鸟虫提高返青率, 大苗可适当降低移栽密度或搭架提高返青株成活率, 有效提高党参的生态有机栽培成效。
  • 图  1  2018—2019年研究区各月平均气温(数据来源于天气预报http://www.weather.com.cn/)

    Figure  1.  Monthly temperatures from 2018 to 2019 in the experiment area (Weather forecast data from http://www.weather.com.cn/)

    图  2  种苗大小对党参返青率与返青后成活率的影响

    BS: 大苗; MS: 中苗; SS: 小苗; SLS, 特小苗。不同小写字母表示不同处理在P<0.05水平差异显著. 不同大写字母表示不同处理在在P<0.01水平差异极显著。BS: big seedlings; MS: middle seedlings; SS: small seedlings; SLS: slender seedlings. The different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments at P<0.05; the different capital letters indicate great significant differences among different treatments at P<0.01.

    Figure  2.  Effect of seedling size on the regreening rate and survival rate of Codonopsis pilosula

    图  3  种苗大小对党参根形态性状和含水量动态变化的影响

    BS: 大苗; MS: 中苗; SS: 小苗; SLS, 特小苗。图中数据点为每个种苗组10株的平均值±标准误。BS: big seedlings; MS: middle seedlings; SS: small seedlings; SLS, slender seedlings. The data were the means±S.E. for 10 plants in each seedling group.

    Figure  3.  Effect of seedling size on dynamic changes of root morphology character and water contents of C. pilosula

    图  4  种苗大小对党参药材根产量和抗病性的影响

    Figure  4.  Effect of seedling size on the medicinal yield and disease resistance of C. pilosula

    表  1  供试‘甘党1号’党参种苗大小分级标准

    Table  1.   Grading criterion of seedling sizes for the tested Codonopsis pilosula ‘Ganduang No.1’

    种苗大小 Seedling size分级标准 Grading criterion
    根长 Root length (cm)根粗 Root diameter (mm)单苗鲜重 Fresh weight of single seedling (g)
    大苗 Big seedlings (BS)≥25.0≥4.50≥2.00
    中苗 Middle seedlings (MS)21.0~25.03.50~4.501.00~2.00
    小苗 Small seedlings (SS)14.0~21.01.95~3.500.25~1.00
    特小苗 Slender seedlings (SLS)<14.0<1.95<0.25
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  种苗大小对党参药材根产量性状的影响

    Table  2.   Effect of seedling size on yield characters of C. pilosula medicinal roots

    指标
    Indicators
    根长
    Root length(cm)
    根粗
    Root diameter(mm)
    侧根数
    Lateral roots
    单根鲜重
    Single root FW(g)
    单根干重
    Single root DW(g)
    根含水量
    Root water content(%)
    折干率
    Dry rate(%)
    大苗 Big seedlings (BS)44.0±1.7aA12.64±0.79a3.2±1.13a35.27±3.47a11.25±1.01a68.0±0.4a31.92±0.43a
    中苗 Middle seedlings (MS)42.1±1.9aA12.61±0.62a2.4±0.72a36.49±4.97a11.61±1.67a67.6±2.5a31.82±2.50a
    小苗 Small seedlings (SS)38.0±1.5bB12.61±0.71a2.1±0.02a40.60±4.32a14.22±1.95a63.8±2.0a34.95±2.01a
    特小苗 Slender seedlings (SLS)36.4±1.6bB12.88±0.95a1.8±0.81a41.84±9.44a14.06±3.69a63.3±5.4a33.76±4.75a
    表中数据为2019年11月1日党参采挖期3个重复小区共30株的平均数±标准差。The data in the table are the means ±S.D. of 30 roots with 3 replicates in total harvested on Nov. 11, 2019.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  党参药材根产量因子及抗病性的相关性分析

    Table  3.   Relation of medicinal yield factors to disease resistance of C. pilosula medicinal roots

    指标
    Indicators
    根长
    Root length
    根粗
    Root diameter
    侧根数
    Lateral
    roots
    单根
    鲜重
    Single
    root FW
    单根
    干重
    Single
    root DW
    根含
    水量
    Root water
    content
    返青率
    Regreening rate
    成活率
    Survival rate
    发病率
    Incidence
    病情
    指数
    Diseaseindex
    鲜药材
    产量
    Fresh yield
    根粗
    Root diameter
    0.017
    侧根数
    Lateral root
    0.550−0.148
    单根鲜重
    Single root FW
    −0.4190.807**−0.194
    单根干重
    Single root DW
    −0.5730.654*−0.1280.909**
    含水量
    Water content
    0.615*0.1490.155−0.005−0.379
    返青率
    Re-green rate
    0.822**0.0380.501−0.335−0.4130.488
    成活率
    Survival rate
    −0.214−0.221−0.130−0.081−0.009−0.266−0.411
    发病率
    Incidence rate
    0.642*0.3390.3650.100−0.1800.700*0.681*−0.267
    病情指数
    Disease index
    0.695*−0.0230.377−0.240−0.4640.603*0.587*−0.2370.666*
    鲜药产量
    Fresh yield
    0.365−0.0330.0620.028−0.0570.4540.3510.0560.2230.364
    干药产量
    Dry yield
    0.174−0.0270.0760.1190.1560.1590.2140.1240.0270.1660.940**
    生长指标为各小区10株的平均数, 3个重复, 4个等级, n=12。*表示在P<0.05相关显著, **表示在P<0.01相关极显著。R0.05, 10=0.576, R0.01 10=0.708。The growth indicators are the mean of 10 plants, 3 replicates and 4 seedling grades. * and ** indicate significant and extremely relation at P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively. R0.05, 10=0.576, R0.01, 10=0.708
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  基于主成分分析的党参产量因子和抗病性指标负荷量和权重

    Table  4.   The capacity and weight of yield factors and disease resistance indicators of C. pilosula based on principal components analysis

    性状指标 Indicators负荷量Load权重值 Weight value
    123
    根长 Root length0.922−0.022−0.0680.0911
    根粗 Root diameter−0.1030.876−0.2990.0688
    侧根数 Lateral root0.529−0.045−0.1340.0577
    单根鲜重 Single root FW−0.4090.894−0.0510.0893
    单根干重 Single root DW−0.6050.7340.0380.0987
    根含水量 Water content0.7370.278−0.0290.0860
    返青率 Re-green rate0.8650.079−0.1080.0904
    成活率 Survival rate−0.304−0.2670.4630.0611
    发病率 Incidence rate0.7430.407−0.2930.1038
    病情指数 Disease index0.8240.066−0.0490.0835
    鲜产量 Fresh yield0.4820.3080.8070.0934
    干产量 Dry yield0.2610.3250.8820.0762
    特征根 Eigenvalues4.5892.6311.86
    贡献率 Contribution rate (%)38.23821.92415.49875.661
    累计贡献率 Cumulative contribution rate (%)38.23860.16375.661
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  基于有机栽培党参产量因子和抗病性隶属度的种苗大小综合评价

    Table  5.   Comprehensive evaluation for different size of seedlings based on membership function value of yield factors and disease resistance of organic cultivated C. pilosula

    性状指标 Character indicators大苗BS中苗MS小苗SS特小苗SLS
    根长 Root length0.09110.06810.01880.0000
    根粗 Root diameter0.00850.00000.00090.0688
    侧根数 Lateral root0.00000.03380.04790.0577
    单根鲜重 Single root FW0.00000.01660.07250.0893
    单根干重 Single root DW0.00000.01190.09870.0933
    根含水量 Water conten0.00000.00810.07730.0860
    返青率 Re-green rate0.09040.08840.04910.0000
    成活率 Survival rate0.00000.00150.02540.0611
    发病率 Incidence rate0.00000.03000.09400.1038
    病情指数 Disease index0.03920.00000.08350.0756
    鲜产量 Fresh yield0.03650.09340.08970.0000
    干产量 Fresh yield0.01630.05710.07620.0000
    综合指数 Comprehensive index0.28200.40890.73400.6356
    排名 Ranks4312
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-27
  • 录用日期:  2021-06-10
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-12

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