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山西省春玉米机械粒收质量及其影响因素分析

阎晓光 李洪 董红芬 李爱军 王国梁 周楠 胡滢 杜艳伟

阎晓光, 李洪, 董红芬, 李爱军, 王国梁, 周楠, 胡滢, 杜艳伟. 山西省春玉米机械粒收质量及其影响因素分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(10): 1−8 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210151
引用本文: 阎晓光, 李洪, 董红芬, 李爱军, 王国梁, 周楠, 胡滢, 杜艳伟. 山西省春玉米机械粒收质量及其影响因素分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(10): 1−8 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210151
YAN X G, LI H, DONG H F, LI A J, WANG G L, ZHOU N, HU Y, DU Y W. Analysis of mechanical grain harvesting quality and its influential factors of spring maize in Shanxi Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(10): 1−8 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210151
Citation: YAN X G, LI H, DONG H F, LI A J, WANG G L, ZHOU N, HU Y, DU Y W. Analysis of mechanical grain harvesting quality and its influential factors of spring maize in Shanxi Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(10): 1−8 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210151

山西省春玉米机械粒收质量及其影响因素分析

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210151
基金项目: 国家现代玉米产业技术体系建设专项(nycytx-02)和国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0101104)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    阎晓光, 主要研究方向为玉米高产栽培。E-mail: gzsyxg001@163.com

    通讯作者:

    李洪, 主要研究方向为玉米遗传育种。E-mail: liho0910@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S513; S372

Analysis of mechanical grain harvesting quality and its influential factors of spring maize in Shanxi Province

Funds: This study was supported by the Special Fund for the Industrial Technology System Construction of Modem Agriculture of China (nycytx-02) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0101104)
More Information
  • 摘要: 开展玉米机械粒收质量及其影响因素研究, 对推动山西省玉米机械粒收发展, 提升玉米产业核心竞争力有重要意义。本文以5个前期试验筛选的适宜机械粒收品种为材料, 设置6个收获时期, 在同一地块采用同一台机械与同一位农机手操作收获, 研究不同收获期对机械粒收质量与产量的影响。研究表明, 籽粒含水率随着收获时期的延迟降低; 籽粒破碎率与机收落粒率随着收获时期延迟前期快速降低后期趋于稳定略有升高; 杂质率随着收获时期的延迟逐步降低最后趋于稳定; 落穗损失率随着收获时期的延迟升高。10月15日收获比9月24日收获平均增产11.9%。高的籽粒破碎率是限制山西省春玉米机械粒收的主要因素。籽粒含水率与破碎率模型为y=0.03x2−1.224x+16.78 (R2=0.802**)。当籽粒含水率为20.4%时, 籽粒破碎率最低。籽粒含水率在15.6%~25.2%区间收获, 破碎率能够达到≤5%的国家标准。在山西省春玉米区选择适宜机械粒收品种, 收获时间推迟到10月15日, 可达到理想粒收质量并增产。‘长单511’ ‘迪卡159’和‘长单716’在粒收质量与产量方面均表现优秀, 可作为山西省春玉米区机械粒收品种推广应用。
  • 图  1  试验地区玉米季降雨与日平均气温

    Figure  1.  Daily precipitation and average temperature in maize season of the experimental area

    图  2  不同收获时期不同玉米品种的籽粒含水率

    Figure  2.  Grain moisture contents of different maize varieties harvested in different dates

    图  3  不同收获时期不同玉米品种机械粒的籽粒收破碎率和杂质率

    Figure  3.  Broken rates and impurity rates of mechanical grain harvest of grains of different mazie varieties harvested in different dates

    图  4  不同收获时期不同玉米品种机械粒收的落穗率和落粒率

    Figure  4.  Ear loss rates and grain loss rates of mechanical grain harvest of different maize varieties harvested in different dates

    图  5  不同收获时期不同玉米品种机械粒收的总损失率

    Figure  5.  Total grain loss rates of mechanical grain harvest of different maize varieties harvested in different dates

    图  6  不同收获时期不同玉米品种的机械粒收产量

    Figure  6.  Grain yields of mechanical grain harvest of different maize varieties harvested in different dates

    图  7  玉米收获时籽粒含水率与机械粒收破碎率、杂质率、落穗率和落粒率的关系

    Figure  7.  Relationships of grain moisture content with broken rate, impurity rate, ear loss rate and grain loss rate of mechanical grain harvest of maize

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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-13
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