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不同水氮管理对梨园土壤氨挥发的影响

邢寒冰 董文旭 庞桂斌 胡春胜

邢寒冰, 董文旭, 庞桂斌, 胡春胜. 不同水氮管理对梨园土壤氨挥发的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(11): 1−11 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210133
引用本文: 邢寒冰, 董文旭, 庞桂斌, 胡春胜. 不同水氮管理对梨园土壤氨挥发的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(11): 1−11 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210133
XING H B, DONG W X, PANG G B, HU C S. Effects of different water and nitrogen management on ammonia volatilization in pear orchard soil[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(11): 1−11 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210133
Citation: XING H B, DONG W X, PANG G B, HU C S. Effects of different water and nitrogen management on ammonia volatilization in pear orchard soil[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(11): 1−11 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210133

不同水氮管理对梨园土壤氨挥发的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210133
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划 2018YFC0213300
详细信息
    作者简介:

    邢寒冰,主要研究方向为农田节水灌溉。E-mail:17862903330@139.com

    通讯作者:

    董文旭,主要研究方向为农田碳氮循环及环境效应的研究。E-mail:dongwx@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S143.1

Effects of different water and nitrogen management on ammonia volatilization in pear orchard soil

Funds: This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China(2018YFC0213300)
More Information
  • 摘要: 根际注射施肥在果树种植上应用广泛, 但目前注射施肥及配套灌溉管理对果园氨挥发的影响尚不明确。本文于2019年3—9月在河北省晋州市果园示范基地进行, 利用动态箱法分析了梨树追肥时期不同水氮管理下土壤氨挥发速率和损失量的变化规律。试验设置5个处理: 不施肥(CK)、氮肥表面撒施+常规灌溉(BW1)、注射施肥+常规灌溉(IW1)、氮肥表面撒施+节水灌溉(BW2)、注射施肥+节水灌溉(IW2)。结果表明, 各处理各时期氨挥发基本在施肥后1 d达到峰值,在5-10 d后结束。BW1、IW1、BW2、IW2氨挥发损失量差异均达显著水平(P<0.05),分别为24.05 kg·hm−2、8.43 kg·hm−2、31.94 kg·hm−2和14.06 kg·hm−2 ; 与传统管理(BW1)相比注射施肥处理(IW1和IW2)减排率分别达64.95%与41.54%。撒施处理氨挥发受灌溉量影响较大, 根际注射施肥可以显著降低氨挥发的排放, 且受灌溉量影响较小。相关系分析表明, 氨挥发与土壤铵态氮含量和pH呈正相关, 与硝态氮含量呈负相关, 且与铵态氮和硝态氮的相关性均达到极显著水平(P<0.01); 土壤水分与铵态氮呈正相关且达极显著水平(P<0.01)。与传统管理方式相比, 根际注射施肥与节水灌溉结合是减少果园氨挥发的有效途径之一。
  • 图  1  不同施肥处理下梨园土壤不同施肥时期氨挥发通量变化(6、8、9月分别为开花期、前膨果期、后膨果期氨挥发通量变化情况; CK、BW1、IW1、IW2、BW2含义见表2)

    Figure  1.  Variations of ammonia volatilization fluxes in pear orchard soil under different fertilization treatments (June, August and September show the changes of ammonia volatilization fluxes in flowering period, pre- and post-expansion period. The meanings of CK, BW1,IW1,IW2andBW2 are shown in the table 2)

    图  2  不同施肥处理下梨园土壤不同施肥时期氨挥发累积量变化(6、8、9月分别为开花期、前膨果期、后膨果期; CK、BW1、IW1、IW2、BW2含义见表2)

    Figure  2.  Variations of volatile accumulation of ammonia in pear orchard soil under different fertilization treatments (June, August and September show the changes of ammonia volatilization fluxes in flowering period, pre- and post-expansion period. The meanings of CK, BW1, IW1, IW2 and BW2 are shown in the table 2)

    图  3  不同施肥处理下梨园表层土壤不同施肥时期施肥后 NH4+-N和NO3-N含量及pH的变化(6、8、9月分别为开花期、前膨果期、后膨果期; CK、BW1、BW2、IW1和IW2含义见表2)

    Figure  3.  Changes in NH4+-N and NO3-N contents and pH of surface soil under different fertilization treatments at different periods (June, August and September show flowering period, pre- and post-expansion periods. The meanings of CK, BW1, IW1, IW2 and BW2 are shown in the table 2)

    图  4  氨挥发期间土壤温度、土壤水分及空气湿度变化(图a、b、c分别为土壤温度、土壤水分及空气湿度;6、8、9月 分别为开花期、前膨果期、后膨果期; CK、BW1、BW2、IW1和IW2含义见表2)

    Figure  4.  Changes of soil temperature, soil moisture and air humidity during ammonia volatilization (figure a、b、c show soil temperature, soil moisture and air humidity;June, August and September show flowering period, pre-and post-expansion period.The meanings of CK, BW1, IW1, IW2 and BW2 are shown in the table 2)

    表  1  试验区土壤基本物理性质

    Table  1.   Basic physical properties of soil in test area

    深度
    Depth
    (cm)
    pH容重
    Bulk density
    (g∙cm−3)
    有机质含量
    Organic content
    (g kg−1)
    NO3−N
    (mg kg−1)
    NH4+−N
    (mg kg−1)
    0~408.51.4716.734.42.6
    40~907.81.457.821.60.7
    90~1807.71.435.429.10.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同处理追肥时期的施肥和灌水方案

    Table  2.   Schemes of irriageion and fertilization during topdressing periods of different treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    水肥管理方式
    Irrigationand fertilization methods
    施氮量 Nitrogen application (kg∙hm−2)灌溉总量
    Total irrigation
    (m3∙hm−2)
    开花期
    Flowering
    period
    前膨果期
    Pre-expansion
    period
    后膨果
    Post-expansion
    period
    总量
    Total
    CK不施肥+常规灌溉
    No fertilization+conventional irrigation
    00003200
    BW1复合肥撒施+常规灌溉
    Compound fertilizer broadcasting+conventional irrigation
    168962707923200
    IW1液体肥注射深施+常规灌溉
    Deep injection of liquid fertilizer+conventional irrigation
    168962707923200
    BW2复合肥撒施+70%灌溉
    Compound fertilizer broadcasting+70% conventional irrigation
    168962707922240
    IW2液体肥注射深施+70%灌溉
    Deep injection of liquid fertilizer+70% conventional irrigation
    168962707922240
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同时期不同施肥处理下梨园的土壤氨挥发总累积量及损失率

    Table  3.   Total ammonia volatile accumulations and loss rates of pear orchard soil under different fertilization treatments at different periods

    施肥时期
    Fertilization period
    指标
    Index
    CKBW1IW1BW2IW2
    开花期
    Flowering period
    累积氨挥发量
    Accumulation ammonia volatilization (kg·hm−2)
    0.5±0.09c2.42±0.06b0.1±0.09a3.81±1.51b0.22±0.05c
    损失率 Loss rate (%)1.44±0.05b0.06±0.01c2.77±1.03a0.13±0.01c
    前膨果期
    Pre-expansion period
    累积挥发量量
    Accumulation ammonia volatilization (kg·hm−2)
    0.4±0.01c4.86±0.19b1.69±0.17a6.03±2.35c1.23±0.13b
    损失率 Loss rate (%)5.06±0.27b1.76±0.12b6.28±1.89b1.28±0.11b
    后膨果期
    Post-expansion period
    累积氨挥发量
    Accumulation ammonia volatilization (kg·hm−2)
    2.44±0.06b16.77±2.64a6.64±0.45b29.3±5.06b12.61±3.04b
    损失率 Loss rate (%)6.21±0.41b2.46±0.27b10.85±3.81b4.67±2.14b
    总挥发损量 Total volatilization (kg·hm−2)3.34±0.08c24.05±3.17a8.43±1.02b39.14±5.09b14.06±3.12b
    总减排率 Total emission reduction rate (%)64.95−62.7741.54
      不同小写字母表示处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。CK、BW1、BW2、IW1和IW2含义见表2。Different small letters indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level. The meanings of CK, BW1, IW1, IW2 and BW2 are shown in the table 2.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同施肥处理下梨园土壤氨挥发与各个因素的相关性分析

    Table  4.   Correlation analysis of ammonia volatility under different fertilization treatments and factors

    处理 Teatment${\rm{NH}}_4^+$${\rm{NO}}_3^- $pH土壤温度 Soil temperature空气湿度 Air humidity土壤水分 Soil moisture
    BW10.531**−0.668**0.3790.144−0.250
    IW10.639**−0.447**0.2500.224−0.2080.226
    BW20.871**−0.474*0.0190.278−0.1930.469*
    IW20.409−0.2510.2420.213−0.1810.276
      *,**分别表示线性相关系数达显著(P<0.05)和极显著(P<0.01)水平; *,**represent the coefficient of linear correlation at significant level and highly significant level, respectively
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-09
  • 录用日期:  2021-05-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-06-22

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