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施肥对紫色土农田土壤有机碳损失过程的影响

沈姣 王小国 马晗

沈姣, 王小国, 马晗. 施肥对紫色土农田土壤有机碳损失过程的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1571−1581 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210123
引用本文: 沈姣, 王小国, 马晗. 施肥对紫色土农田土壤有机碳损失过程的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1571−1581 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210123
SHEN J, WANG X G, MA H. Effect of fertilizer application on soil carbon loss in purple soil[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1571−1581 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210123
Citation: SHEN J, WANG X G, MA H. Effect of fertilizer application on soil carbon loss in purple soil[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1571−1581 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210123

施肥对紫色土农田土壤有机碳损失过程的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210123
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0800505)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    沈姣, 主要研究方向为土壤碳循环。E-mail: 1278035438@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    王小国, 主要研究方向为土壤学、生态系统生物地球化学循环。E-mail: xgwang@imde.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: X51; X53

Effect of fertilizer application on soil carbon loss in purple soil

Funds: This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Project of China (2017YFD0800505)
More Information
  • 摘要: 农田土壤有机碳气体交换与径流损失的研究大都相对孤立, 对二者之间的同步观测研究较少。本文利用紫色土坡地可测壤中流的径流小区, 开展了不同施肥处理下紫色土农田土壤有机碳土-气交换和土-水界面迁移过程的同步观测试验。试验处理包括: 无肥对照(CK)、常规氮磷钾(NPK)、猪厩肥配施氮磷钾(OMNPK)、秸秆配施氮磷钾(RSDNPK)。结果表明: 1)不同施肥处理的土壤异养呼吸速率与通量均呈现: RSDNPK>OMNPK>NPK>CK, 表明施加无机肥、有机肥和秸秆还田均会增加紫色土的土壤CO2排放, 其中秸秆还田配施氮磷钾肥的CO2排放通量为4155.87 kg(C)∙hm−2, 显著大于其他施肥处理。2)不同施肥处理的土壤有机碳径流损失通量表现为: RSDNPK>OMNPK>CK>NPK, 径流损失途径也存在差异, 与CK相比, RSDNPK处理在降低紫色土泥沙损失通量的同时, 显著增加了壤中流可溶性有机碳(DOC)损失通量, 达8.29 kg(C)∙hm−2, 各施肥处理的壤中流DOC损失通量占径流碳损失总通量的49.82%~92.11%, 说明壤中流DOC损失是紫色土有机碳径流损失的主要方式。3) RSDNPK处理的土壤有机碳损失总通量显著大于其他施肥处理, OMNPK与NPK处理的总通量没有显著差异; 各施肥处理的CO2排放通量占总通量的比例均大于99%, 说明气态损失是紫色土有机碳损失的主要途径。4)本文计算了不同施肥处理的单位产量碳损失通量, 将作物经济效益与生态环境负荷相结合, 结果表明CK的单位产量碳损失通量显著大于其他3个施肥处理。OMNPK处理的土壤有机碳含量为5.86 g∙kg−1, 大于NPK处理, 说明施加有机肥有利于土壤有机碳的积累, 因此在紫色土地区可以优先考虑施加有机肥配施氮磷钾肥。
  • 图  1  紫色土坡地土壤有机碳气态损失过程和径流损失过程的同步观测试验小区示意图[11]

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram of simultaneous observation experiment plot for gaseous loss process and runoff loss process of soil organic carbon of purple soil slope[11]

    图  2  不同施肥处理的紫色土异养呼吸速率动态

    各处理说明见表1。Description of each treatment is shown in the table 1.

    Figure  2.  Dynamics of soil heterotrophic respiration rates under different fertilization treatments

    图  3  不同施肥处理的历次产流事件的径流深

    各处理说明见表1, 图中不同字母表示不同施肥处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。Description of each treatment is shown in the table 1. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at P<0.05 levels among different fertilization treatments.

    Figure  3.  Runoff depth of every runoff event under different fertilization treatments

    图  4  历次产流事件中不同施肥处理的产沙特征和泥沙有机碳通量(图柱为泥沙有机碳通量, 曲线为泥沙浓度)

    各处理说明见表1, 图中不同字母表示不同施肥处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。Description of each treatment is shown in the table 1. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at P<0.05 levels among different fertilization treatments.

    Figure  4.  Characteristics of sediment yield and total organic carbon (TOC) flux in each runoff event under different fertilization treatments (in the figure, the columns show the TOC fluxes, and the curves show the sediment concentrations)

    图  5  历次产流事件中不同施肥处理的可溶性有机碳(DOC)迁移浓度及损失通量(图柱为DOC通量, 曲线为DOC浓度)

    各处理说明见表1, 图中不同字母表示不同施肥处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。Description of each treatment is shown in the table 1. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at P<0.05 levels among different fertilization treatments.

    Figure  5.  Concentrations and amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface flow and interflow in each runoff event under different fertilization treatments (in the figure, the columns show the DOC flux, and the curves show the DOC concentrations)

    图  6  不同施肥处理的玉米产量

    各处理说明见表1, 图中不同字母表示不同施肥处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。Description of each treatment is shown in the table 1. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at P<0.05 levels between different fertilization treatments.

    Figure  6.  Maize yield under different fertilization treatments

    图  7  各施肥处理总有机碳(TOC)和可溶性有机碳(DOC)的径流损失途径及其通量

    各处理说明见表1, 图中不同字母表示不同施肥处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。Description of each treatment is shown in the table 1. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at P<0.05 levels among different fertilization treatments.

    Figure  7.  Pathways and amounts of soil total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss under different fertilization treatments

    图  8  不同施肥处理的单位产量碳损失通量(A)和土壤有机碳含量(B)

    各处理说明见表1, 图中不同字母表示不同施肥处理间在P<0.05水平差异显著。Description of each treatment is shown in the table 1. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at P<0.05 levels among different fertilization treatments.

    Figure  8.  Carbon loss fluxes per unit crop yield (A) and soil organic carbon content (B) under different fertilization treatments

    表  1  各处理的肥料类型及用量

    Table  1.   Fertilizer types and application rates of each treatment

    处理 Treatment猪厩肥 Pig slurry (t∙hm−2)秸秆 Crop residue (t∙hm−2)化肥 Mineral fertilizer (kg∙hm−2)
    NP2O5K2O
    CK
    NPK1509036
    OMNPK3.4 909036
    RSDNPK4.91209036
    猪粪肥和秸秆的全氮含量分别为1.7%和0.6%。The total nitrogen contents of pig slurry and crop residue are 1.7% and 0.6%, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同施肥处理的土壤有机碳损失途径及通量

    Table  2.   Pathways and amounts of soil organic carbon loss under different fertilization treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    有机碳气态损失通量
    Organic carbon gaseous loss flux [kg(C)∙hm−2]
    有机碳气态损失
    占总量比例
    Proportion of gaseous loss of organic carbon (%)
    有机碳径流损失通量
    Flux of organic carbon runoff loss [kg(C)∙hm−2]
    有机碳径流损失
    占总量比例
    Proportion of organic carbon runoff loss (%)
    有机碳损失总量
    Total fluxes of organic carbon loss [kg(C)∙hm−2]
    CK1575.36±101.05c99.576.85±0.38bc0.431582.21±100.86c
    NPK2181.82±106.55b99.735.87±0.31c 0.272187.69±106.72b
    OMNPK2423.47±126.46b99.668.15±1.42ab0.342431.63±126.39b
    RSDNPK4155.87±422.66a99.789.01±0.34a 0.224164.87±422.49a
      各处理说明见表1。数据是平均值±标准差, 同列不同小写字母表示各处理差异显著(P<0.05)。Description of each treatment is shown in the table 1. Data is mean ± standard deviation, and different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences among different fertilization treatments (P<0.05)。
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-05
  • 录用日期:  2021-04-01
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-26
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-06

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