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华北平原多目标约束下冬小麦最优施氮量

代娜 史文娇 石晓丽

代娜, 史文娇, 石晓丽. 华北平原多目标约束下冬小麦最优施氮量[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1512−1523 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210107
引用本文: 代娜, 史文娇, 石晓丽. 华北平原多目标约束下冬小麦最优施氮量[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1512−1523 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210107
DAI N, SHI W J, SHI X L. Optimal nitrogen application rate for winter wheat under multi-objective constraints in the North China Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1512−1523 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210107
Citation: DAI N, SHI W J, SHI X L. Optimal nitrogen application rate for winter wheat under multi-objective constraints in the North China Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1512−1523 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210107

华北平原多目标约束下冬小麦最优施氮量

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.210107
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41771111)、河北省自然科学基金(D2019205123, D2020205009)、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(XDA23100202)、中国科学院青年创新促进会(会员号: 2018071)和河北师范大学科研基金(L052018Z09)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    代娜, 研究方向为气候变化与区域农业。E-mail: daina1569841381@163.com

    通讯作者:

    石晓丽, 研究方向为气候变化与区域农业。E-mail: shixiaoli_2004@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S365

Optimal nitrogen application rate for winter wheat under multi-objective constraints in the North China Plain

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41771111), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (D2019205123, D2020205009), the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA23100202), the Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences (2018071), and the Research Fund Project of Hebei Normal University (L052018Z09)
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  • 摘要: 农田氮素管理不当导致水体污染、土壤结构破坏和全球变暖等环境问题。从经济与生态环境各方面探讨华北平原冬小麦的最优施氮量可为粮食生产及区域农业生态保护提供重要的科学参考。本文利用华北平原9个站点1981—2017年的逐日气象数据及冬小麦物候和产量观测资料, 借助CERES-Wheat模型, 基于5个约束指标(产量、氮肥偏生产力、氮素吸收、增产-节氮权衡和环境-经济效益)和施氮量的关系曲线, 揭示华北平原冬小麦在不同约束条件下的最优施氮量。结果表明: 华北平原各站点基于不同目标约束所得的最优施氮量有所不同, 其大小顺序为氮素吸收>产量>环境-经济效益>增产-节氮权衡>氮肥偏生产力, 且各地区最优施氮量的参考值也存在一定的空间差异。通过对粮食安全与生态友好的综合考量, 本研究认为增产-节氮权衡和环境-经济效益约束条件下的最优施氮量能够实现经济效益和生态效益的统一, 是较合理的区域施氮参考, 该条件下最优施氮量分别为173 kg∙hm−2和190 kg∙hm−2, 比当前华北平原农民实际施氮水平分别减少约47%和42%, 可以作为冬小麦种植施氮的区域参考值。该目标约束下最优施氮量的低值主要分布在Ⅱ区和Ⅳ区, 分别为150 kg∙hm−2和170 kg∙hm−2, Ⅰ区和Ⅲ区则相对较高, 最优施氮量分别为200 kg∙hm−2和225 kg∙hm−2, 原因可能在于长期施氮降低土壤有机碳含量, 进而影响土壤供氮能力。
  • 图  1  华北平原典型农业试验站分布图

    Figure  1.  Location of the agricultural experimental stations in the North China Plain (NCP)

    图  2  冬小麦开花期、成熟期和产量的CERES-Wheat模型模拟效果验证

    Figure  2.  Validation of CERES-Wheat model simulation of anthesis, maturity stages and yield of winter wheat

    图  3  华北平原各站点冬小麦产量和氮肥偏生产力随施氮量的变化

    Figure  3.  Changes in winter wheat yield and nitrogen partial factor productivity (PFPN) with N application rates in the NCP stations

    图  4  华北平原各站点冬小麦氮素吸收随施氮量的变化

    Figure  4.  Changes in N uptake with N application rates of winter wheat in the NCP stations

    图  5  华北平原各站点冬小麦氮损失和产量增长随施氮量的变化(氮损失、产量增长分别经过离差标准化)

    Figure  5.  Changes in N loss and yield increase with N application rates of winter wheat in the NCP stations (N loss and yield increase were obtained from deviation normalization)

    图  6  华北平原各站点冬小麦环境-经济效益随施氮量的变化

    Figure  6.  Changes in environmental-economic benefits with N application rates of winter wheat in the NCP stations

    图  7  华北平原各指标约束下冬小麦最优施氮量

    Yield: 产量; PFPN: 氮肥偏生产力; NUP: 氮素吸收; Y-N: 增产-节氮权衡; EV-EC: 环境-经济效益; Act: 农户实际施氮量。PFPN: nitrogen partial factor productivity; NUP: N uptake; Y-N: the balance of yield increase and nitrogen-saving; EV-EC: environmental-economic benefits; Act: actual nitrogen application of farmers.

    Figure  7.  Optimal N application rates under different constraints of winter wheat in the NCP

    图  8  华北平原冬小麦最优施氮量下各约束指标的基本情况

    Yield: 产量; PFPN: 氮肥偏生产力; NUP: 氮素吸收; Y-N: 增产-节氮权衡; EV-EC: 环境-经济效益; Act: 农户实际施氮量。每个指标后括号内数据为最优施氮量。PFPN: nitrogen partial factor productivity; NUP: N uptake; Y-N: the balance of yield increase and nitrogen-saving; EV-EC: environmental-economic benefits; Act: actual nitrogen application of farmers. The date in the bracket following the indicator is the optimal N application rate.

    Figure  8.  Conditions of each constraint indicator under the optimal N application rate of winter wheat in the NCP

    图  9  华北平原各站点冬小麦最优施氮量分布图

    Yield: 产量; PFPN: 氮肥偏生产力; NUP: 氮素吸收; Y-N: 增产-节氮权衡; EV-EC: 环境-经济效益; Act: 农户实际施氮量。PFPN: nitrogen partial factor productivity; NUP: N uptake; Y-N: the balance of yield increase and nitrogen-saving; EV-EC: environmental-economic benefits; Act: actual nitrogen application of farmers.

    Figure  9.  Optimal N application rates of winter wheat in the NCP stations

    表  1  氮肥施用过程排放物类型与污染处理成本[26-28]

    Table  1.   Types of emissions from the application of nitrogen fertilizer and pollution treatment costs[26-28]

    排放物类型 Emission type排放量计算方式 Formula model处理成本 Treatment cost (¥∙kg−1)
    氨气 NH3−4.95+0.17×施氮量[27-28]
    −4.95+0.17×N application rate[27-28]
    37.5
    氮氧化物 NOx模型输出 Model output29.6
    氧化亚氮 N2O模型输出 Model output83.7
    氮淋溶 N leaching模型输出 Model output9.3
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-03-01
  • 录用日期:  2021-05-28
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-29
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-06

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