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不同冬季作物对稻田蚯蚓及蚯蚓粪产量的影响

李超 赵杨 郭立君 程凯凯 唐海明 黄敏 汤文光 文丽 汪柯 崔婷 肖小平

李超, 赵杨, 郭立君, 程凯凯, 唐海明, 黄敏, 汤文光, 文丽, 汪柯, 崔婷, 肖小平. 不同冬季作物对稻田蚯蚓及蚯蚓粪产量的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1615−1624 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200821
引用本文: 李超, 赵杨, 郭立君, 程凯凯, 唐海明, 黄敏, 汤文光, 文丽, 汪柯, 崔婷, 肖小平. 不同冬季作物对稻田蚯蚓及蚯蚓粪产量的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1615−1624 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200821
LI C, ZHAO Y, GUO L J, CHENG K K, TANG H M, HUANG M, TANG W G, WEN L, WANG K, CUI T, XIAO X P. Effects of winter crops on the earthworm yield and earthworm cast in paddy fields[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1615−1624 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200821
Citation: LI C, ZHAO Y, GUO L J, CHENG K K, TANG H M, HUANG M, TANG W G, WEN L, WANG K, CUI T, XIAO X P. Effects of winter crops on the earthworm yield and earthworm cast in paddy fields[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1615−1624 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200821

不同冬季作物对稻田蚯蚓及蚯蚓粪产量的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200821
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金项目(41807008)、湖南省自然科学基金项目(2018JJ3305)和国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300906)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    李超, 主要从事稻田培肥与耕作生态研究。E-mail: hnchaoli0419@163.com

    通讯作者:

    肖小平, 主要从事稻田培肥及农作制研究。E-mail: hntfsxxping@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S154.5

Effects of winter crops on the earthworm yield and earthworm cast in paddy fields

Funds: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41807008), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province (2018JJ3305), and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300906)
More Information
  • 摘要: 基于大田调查, 结合2017—2020年的降雨量及积温数据, 研究了稻田种植不同冬季作物(T1, 冬闲; T2, 冬种紫云英; T3, 冬种油菜)对威廉环毛蚓(Pheretima guillelmi)产量及蚯蚓粪产量的影响, 以期为稻田蚯蚓增效提供理论及技术支撑。结果表明: 蚯蚓产量、蚯蚓粪产量及冬季作物产量在不同年度间的波动幅度均较大, 不同年度间的蚯蚓产量变异系数(CV)与冬季作物产量CV值极显著(P<0.01)正相关; 2018—2019年10—12月的持续降雨及12—2月的低温导致冬季作物及蚯蚓产量大幅下降。蚯蚓产量、蚯蚓粪产量与土壤有机质含量显著正相关(P<0.05), 与冬季作物产量均呈极显著正相关(P<0.01)。冬闲、冬种紫云英和冬种油菜的蚯蚓密度分别为8.4~12.8条·m−2、11.2~30.8条·m−2和20.4~49.1条·m−2, 蚯蚓平均密度分别为10.8条·m−2、20.7条·m−2和36.3条·m−2; 蚯蚓产量分别为290~428 kg·hm−2、368~1054 kg·hm−2和763~1845 kg·hm−2, 蚯蚓平均产量分别为373 kg·hm−2、695 kg·hm−2和1364 kg·hm−2; 蚯蚓粪产量分别为1921~3126 kg·hm−2、3023~10 116 kg·hm−2和6034~18 958 kg·hm−2, 蚯蚓粪平均产量分别为2652 kg·hm−2、6438 kg·hm−2和12 545 kg·hm−2; 平均值均表现为油菜>紫云英>冬闲。粪蚓比伴随冬季作物产量的增加而增加, 平均为8.8。油菜不同产量水平间的蚯蚓产量及蚯蚓粪产量的变幅均小于紫云英。综上, 蚯蚓产量及蚯蚓粪产量受年际间气候干扰较大, 冬季作物高产田块的土壤有机质含量较高, 有利于提高蚯蚓产量、蚯蚓粪产量及其产量稳定性, 且冬种油菜的效果更好。
  • 图  1  不同冬季作物条件下的土壤有机质含量

    不同小写字母代表P<0.05水平不同处理间差异显著。Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  1.  Effects of different winter crops and their yield levels on the content of soil organic matter

    图  2  不同冬季作物对粪蚓比的影响

    不同小写字母代表P<0.05水平不同处理间差异显著。Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  2.  Effects of different winter crops and their yield levels on the ratio of cast weight to earthworm weight

    图  3  蚯蚓产量(a, b, c)及蚯蚓粪产量(d, e, f)与土壤有机质和冬季作物紫云英、油菜产量的相关系

    *和**分别表示在P<0.05及P<0.01水平显著相关及极显著相关, * and ** indicate significant and highly significant correlations at P<0.05 and P<0.01 levels, respectively.

    Figure  3.  Correlations of earthworm yield (a, b, c) and earthworm cast yield (d, e, f) with soil organic matter content and yields of winter crop of milk vetch and oilseed rape

    图  4  冬季作物产量变异系数(CV)与蚯蚓产量及蚯蚓粪产量变异系数(CV)间的相关性

    Figure  4.  Correlations of coefficients of variation (CV) of earthworm yield, earthworm cast yield with winter crop yield

    表  1  2017—2020年试验区冬季作物生育期内的降雨量

    Table  1.   Rainfall during the growing season of winter crops in 2017−2020 in the study area

    月份
    Month
    降雨量 Rainfall (mm)CV
    (%)
    2017—20182018—20192019—2020平均 Mean
    1048.790.148.362.438.5
    1152.496.841.863.745.8
    129.384.026.940.197.5
    1101.651.4104.685.934.8
    243.585.977.869.132.6
    3129.1130.8115.9125.36.5
    4124.089.5134.7116.120.4
    累计 Accumulation508.6628.5550.0562.410.8
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2017—2020年研究区冬季作物生育期内的积温

    Table  2.   Accumulated temperature during the growing season of winter crops in 2017−2020 in the study area

    月份
    Month
    ≤5 ℃天数 Days with ≤5 ℃ (d)活动积温 Active accumulated temperature (℃)有效积温 Effective accumulated temperature (℃)
    2017—
    2018
    2018—
    2019
    2019—
    2020
    平均
    Mean
    CV
    (%)
    2017—
    2018
    2018—
    2019
    2019—
    2020
    平均
    Mean
    CV
    (%)
    2017—
    2018
    2018—
    2019
    2019—
    2020
    平均
    Mean
    CV
    (%)
    1000000542.5580.5604.5575.85.4387.5425.5449.5420.87.4
    1100000391.5399.5420403.73.6241.5249.5270253.75.8
    122(0)14(5)1(0)5.7(1.7)127.7249163265225.724.310978115100.719.7
    114(10)17(2)11(0)14(4)21.4123.592.5133116.318.238.522.53331.325.9
    25(0)16(2)2(0)7.7(0.7)96.121598279.5197.546.610038144.594.256.8
    300000448410429.5429.24.4293255274.5274.26.9
    400000598562530563.36.0448412380413.38.2
    12—22(10)47(9)14(0)27.3(6.4)63.6587.5353.5677.5539.531.082.546.297.575.435.0
    10—421(10)47(9)14(0)27.3(6.4)63.62567.52305.52661.52511.57.31617.51480.51666.51588.26.1
      括号内的数据代表日平均气温≤0 ℃的霜冻天数。The data in brackets represents the number of days with an average daily temperature ≤0 ℃.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  2018—2020年冬季作物产量

    Table  3.   Yields of winter crops in 2018−2020

    冬季作物
    Winter crop
    产量水平
    Yield level
    处理
    Treatment
    产量 Yield (kg∙hm−2)CV
    (%)
    201820192020平均 Mean
    紫云英 Milk vetch 低 Low T2-L 6288c 4281c 8284c 6284c 24.5b
    中 Middle T2-M 21 020b 11 651b 20 964b 17 878b 30.2a
    高 High T2-G 36 489a 26 464a 38 406a 33 786a 19.0c
    平均 Mean 21 266 14 132 22 551 19 316 24.6
    变幅 Variation (%) 142 157 133.6 142.4
    油菜 Oilseed rape 低 Low T3-L 830c 606c 1280c 905c 37.9 a
    中 Middle T3-M 1409b 1167b 1738b 1438b 19.9b
    高 High T3-G 2102a 1687a 2427a 2072a 17.9b
    平均 Mean 1447 1153 1815 1472 25.2
    变幅 Variation (%) 87.9 93.7 63.2 79.3
      不同小写字母代表在P<0.05水平同种作物不同产量水平差异显著。Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different yield levels of the same crop at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同冬季作物条件对蚯蚓密度、产量及个体生物量的影响

    Table  4.   Effects of different winter crops and their yield levels on earthworm density, yield, and individual biomass

    年份
    Year
    指标
    Index
    T1 T2T3
    LMG平均 MeanLMG平均 Mean
    2018 密度 Density (×104 individuals∙hm−2) 11.3±0.4f 16.1±0.6e 22.3±0.8d 28.4±1.1cd 22.3 32.9±1.1c 40.2±1.4b 49.1±1.8a 40.7
    产量 Yield (kg∙hm−2) 402±15g 553±18f 724±22e 935±41d 737 1224±38c 1476±49b 1842±68a 1514
    个体生物量 Individual biomass (g) 3.6±0.1b 3.4±0.1bc 3.3±0.0c 3.3±0.1c 3.3 3.7±0.1a 3.7±0.1a 3.8±0.2a 3.7
    2019 密度 Density (×104 individuals∙hm−2) 8.4±0.2e 11.2±0.3de 14.6±0.5d 20.2±0.7c 15.3 20.4±0.6c 26.7±0.9b 33.6±1.2a 26.9
    产量 Yield (kg∙hm−2) 290±10e 368±13de 480±16d 681±21c 510 763±23c 983±31b 1247±42a 998
    个体生物量 Individual biomass (g) 3.5±0.1b 3.3±0.0c 3.3±0.1c 3.4±0.1bc 3.3 3.7±0.1a 3.7±0.2a 3.7±0.1a 3.7
    2020 密度 Density (×104 individuals∙hm−2) 12.8±0.4g 17.6±0.5f 25.3±1.1e 30.8±1.2d 24.6 35.6±1.3c 40.2±1.5b 48.4±1.5a 41.4
    产量 Yield (kg∙hm−2) 428±11g 592±15f 871±34e 1054±40d 839 1371±44c 1520±51b 1845±56a 1579
    个体生物量 Individual biomass (g) 3.3±0.0b 3.4±0.1b 3.4±0.1b 3.4±0.1b 3.4 3.9±0.2a 3.8±0.2a 3.8±0.1a 3.8
    平均 Mean 密度 Density (×104 individuals∙hm−2) 10.8 15.0 20.7 26.5 29.6 35.7 43.7
    产量 Yield (kg∙hm−2) 373 504 692 890 1120 1327 1645
    个体生物量 Biomass per individual (g) 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.4 3.8 3.7 3.8
    CV (%) 密度 Density 20.6 22.4 26.2 21.0 27.4 21.8 20.0
    产量 Yield 19.7 23.8 28.5 21.3 28.3 22.5 20.9
    个体生物量 Individual biomass 3.2 2.2 3.0 2.0 1.9 1.6 1.3
      不同小写字母代表P<0.05水平不同处理间差异显著。Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同冬季作物对蚯蚓粪产量及个体产量的影响

    Table  5.   Effects of different winter crops and their yield levels on yield of earthworm cast

    年份
    Year
    指标
    Index
    T1 T2T3
    LMG平均 MeanLMG平均 Mean
    2018 蚯蚓粪产量
    Earthworm cast yield (kg∙hm−2)
    2910±113f 4913±218e 6902±297d 9587±349c 7134 10 534±372c 13 836±523b 18 043±741a 14 138
    个体蚯蚓粪产量
    Cast yield per earthworm (g)
    25.8±1.1c 30.5±1.3b 31.0±1.5b 33.8±1.2ab 31.7 32.0±1.2b 34.4±1.3ab 36.7±1.4a 34.4
    2019 蚯蚓粪产量
    Earthworm cast yield (kg∙hm−2)
    1921±87e 3023±119de 4102±178d 6117±268c 4414 6034±232c 8193±311b 10 736±345a 8321
    个体蚯蚓粪产量
    Cast yield per earthworm (g)
    22.9±1.1d 27.0±1.2c 28.1±1.4bc 30.3±1.4ab 28.5 29.6±1.2b 30.7±1.3ab 32.0±1.4a 30.7
    2020 蚯蚓粪产量
    Earthworm cast yield (kg∙hm−2)
    3126±121f 5134±214e 8045±322d 10 116±366cd 7765 11 836±412c 14 736±527b 18 958±702a 15 177
    个体蚯蚓粪产量
    Cast yield per earthworm (g)
    24.4±1.0e 29.2±1.2d 31.8±1.2cd 32.8±1.3c 31.3 33.2±1.3c 36.7±1.4b 39.2±1.6a 36.4
    平均 蚯蚓粪产量
    Earthworm cast yield (kg∙hm−2)
    2652 4357 6350 8607 9468 12 255 15 912
    个体蚯蚓粪产量
    Cast yield per earthworm (g)
    24.3 28.9 30.3 32.3 31.6 33.9 36.0
    CV(%) 蚯蚓粪产量
    Earthworm cast yield
    24.2 26.6 31.9 25.2 32.2 28.9 28.3
    个体蚯蚓粪产量
    Cast yield per earthworm
    6.0 6.1 6.4 5.6 5.8 8.9 10.2
      不同小写字母代表P<0.05水平不同处理间差异显著。Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-10-25
  • 录用日期:  2021-02-22
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-07-12
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-06

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