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耕作与秸秆还田方式对碳氮在土壤团聚体中分布的影响

张玉铭 胡春胜 陈素英 王玉英 李晓欣 董文旭 刘秀萍 裴林 张惠

张玉铭, 胡春胜, 陈素英, 王玉英, 李晓欣, 董文旭, 刘秀萍, 裴林, 张惠. 耕作与秸秆还田方式对碳氮在土壤团聚体中分布的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1558−1570 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200791
引用本文: 张玉铭, 胡春胜, 陈素英, 王玉英, 李晓欣, 董文旭, 刘秀萍, 裴林, 张惠. 耕作与秸秆还田方式对碳氮在土壤团聚体中分布的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(9): 1558−1570 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200791
ZHANG Y M, HU C S, CHEN S Y, WANG Y Y, LI X X, DONG W X, LIU X P, PEI L, ZHANG H. Effects of tillage and straw returning method on the distribution of carbon and nitrogen in soil aggregates[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1558−1570 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200791
Citation: ZHANG Y M, HU C S, CHEN S Y, WANG Y Y, LI X X, DONG W X, LIU X P, PEI L, ZHANG H. Effects of tillage and straw returning method on the distribution of carbon and nitrogen in soil aggregates[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(9): 1558−1570 doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200791

耕作与秸秆还田方式对碳氮在土壤团聚体中分布的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200791
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300808, 2016YFD0200307, 2017YFC1700703)、河北省重点研发计划项目(19226438D)和国家自然科学基金项目(41571291)资助
详细信息
    作者简介:

    张玉铭, 主要研究方向为农田生态系统养分循环与平衡及其环境效应。E-mail: ymzhang@sjziam.ac.cn

    通讯作者:

    胡春胜, 主要研究方向为农田生态系统碳氮循环及其环境效应。E-mail: cshu@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S153; S154.36

Effects of tillage and straw returning method on the distribution of carbon and nitrogen in soil aggregates

Funds: This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFD0300808, 2016YFD0200307, 2017YFC1700703), the Key Research and Development Program of Hebei Province (19226438D) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41571291)
More Information
  • 摘要: 华北平原是我国主要的粮食生产基地之一, 小麦-玉米轮作是本区域主要种植模式。长期秸秆全量还田与土壤的浅旋耕造成了土壤耕层变浅、犁底层加厚、养分表聚等一系列土壤质量问题, 已成为制约本区域粮食持续高产、稳产的障碍因素。本研究依托中国科学院栾城农业生态系统试验站转变耕作与秸秆还田方式定位试验, 开展不同耕作措施和秸秆还田方式对土壤团聚体组成及其稳定性、有机碳氮在团聚体中分布影响的研究, 为阐释不同农业管理措施下土壤碳氮的物理保护机制提供依据。试验设5个处理: 无秸秆旋耕(对照1)、秸秆旋耕还田(对照2)、秸秆深翻耕还田、秸秆集中深混埋、秸秆集中深埋, 后3个处理作为转变秸秆还田方式处理。研究结果表明, 改变秸秆旋耕还田为深层还田可以显著提高粒径>0.25 mm团聚体含量; 不同秸秆还田方式对>2 mm的大团聚体和0.25~2 mm的小团聚体的水稳性影响存在较大差异, 秸秆深层还田主要增加10 cm以下土层土壤水稳性大团聚体(>2 mm)含量和表层水稳性小团聚体(0.25~2 mm)含量, 大团聚体和小团聚体的水稳性消长受到了秸秆还田方式的影响。秸秆深层还田显著增加了亚耕层(20~40 cm)土壤团聚体稳定率, 降低了其结构破碎率。秸秆深层还田措施使0~40 cm土层土壤有效融合, 消除了耕层土壤养分表聚现象, 显著增加了亚耕层土壤有机碳氮含量以及大团聚体对土壤有机碳氮的贡献率, >2 mm团聚体有机碳和氮贡献率在20~40 cm土层分别平均为42.2%~44.0%和32.8%~49.9%, 分别比秸秆旋耕还田处理增加48.7%~54.9%和32.8%~101.8%。总之, 秸秆深层还田有利于改善耕层土壤结构, 促进土壤有效融合, 消除土壤表聚现象。
  • 图  1  耕作与秸秆还田方式对土壤机械稳定性团聚体组成的影响

    SR: 秸秆还田、土壤旋耕; SP: 秸秆还田、土壤深耕; SID: 秸秆集中深混埋至非种植带(40 cm宽)的0~40 cm土层; SBD: 秸秆集中深埋至30~40 cm土层。SR: straw mulching and rotary tillage; SP: straw mulching and deep ploughing; SID: straw incorporated into 0−40 cm layer of 40 cm wide no-wheat planting belt; SBD: straw buried into 30−40 cm soil layer.

    Figure  1.  Effects of tillage and straw returning methods on the composition of soil mechanically stable aggregates

    图  2  耕作与秸秆还田方式对土壤水稳性团聚体组成的影响

    SR: 秸秆还田、土壤旋耕; SP: 秸秆还田、土壤深耕; SID: 秸秆集中深混埋至非种植带(40 cm宽)的0~40 cm土层; SBD: 秸秆集中深埋至30~40 cm土层。SR: straw mulching and rotary tillage; SP: straw mulching and deep ploughing; SID: straw incorporated into 0−40 cm layer of 40 cm wide no-wheat planting belt; SBD: straw buried into 30−40 cm soil layer.

    Figure  2.  Effects of tillage and straw returning methods on soil water-stable aggregate composition

    图  3  耕作与秸秆还田方式对土壤机械稳定性(A)和水稳性(B)团聚体平均重量直径的影响

    SR: 秸秆还田、土壤旋耕; SP: 秸秆还田、土壤深耕; SID: 秸秆集中深混埋至非种植带(40 cm宽)的0~40 cm土层; SBD: 秸秆集中深埋至30~40 cm土层。同一土层不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。SR: straw mulching and rotary tillage; SP: straw mulching and deep ploughing; SID: straw incorporated into 0−40 cm layer of 40 cm wide no-wheat planting belt; SBD: straw buried into 30−40 cm soil layer. Different lowercase letters in the same soil layer indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  3.  Effect of tillage and straw returning methods on the mean weight diameter of soil mechanically stable (A) and water stable (B) aggregates

    图  4  土壤粒径>0.25 mm水稳性(a)和机械稳定性(b)团聚体含量(R0.25)与团聚体平均重量直径(MWD)间的关系

    Figure  4.  Relationship between mean weight diameter of soil aggregates (MWD) and contents of water stable (a) and mechanically stable (b) soil aggregates with >0.25 mm size (R0.25)

    图  5  耕作与秸秆还田方式对氮素在耕层土壤垂向分布的影响

    RT: 旋耕, 无秸秆还田; SR: 秸秆还田、土壤旋耕; SP: 秸秆还田, 土壤深耕; SID: 秸秆集中深混埋至非种植带(40 cm宽)的0~40 cm土层; SBD: 秸秆集中深埋至30~40 cm土层。同一土层不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。RT: rotary tillage without straw returning; SR: straw mulching and rotary tillage; SP: straw mulching and deep ploughing; SID: straw incorporated into 0−40 cm layer of 40 cm wide no-wheat planting belt; SBD: straw buried into 30−40 cm soil layer. Different lowercase letters in the same soil layer indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  5.  Effects of tillage and straw returning methods on vertical distribution of nitrogen in plough soil layer

    图  6  耕作与秸秆还田方式对有机碳在耕层土壤垂向分布的影响

    SR: 秸秆还田、土壤旋耕; SP: 秸秆还田、土壤深耕; SID: 秸秆集中深混埋至非种植带(40 cm宽)的0~40 cm土层; SBD: 秸秆集中深埋至30~40 cm土层。同一土层不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。SR: straw mulching and rotary tillage; SP: straw mulching and deep ploughing; SID: straw incorporated into 0−40 cm layer of 40 cm wide no-wheat planting belt; SBD: straw buried into 30−40 cm soil layer. Different lowercase letters in the same soil layer indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.

    Figure  6.  Effects of tillage and straw returning methods on vertical distribution of organic carbon in plough soil layer

    表  1  不同耕作与秸秆还田方式下土壤团聚体的破碎率和稳定率

    Table  1.   Fragmentation rates and stability rates of soil aggregates with different sizes under different tillage and straw returning methods

    深度
    Soil depth (cm)
    处理
    Treatment
    结构破碎率 Fragmentation rate (%)团聚体稳定率 Stability rate (%)
    >2 mm1~2 mm 0.25~1 mm>2 mm1~2 mm0.25~1 mm
    0~10 SR 32.5±4.0b −19.2±0.7d −28.7±1.1a 67.5±5.4b 119.2±9.2a 128.7±12.7c
    SP 1.9±0.4c 52.2±2.3a −43.2±2.5a 98.1±2.7a 47.8±0.4c 143.2±11.1c
    SID 65.9±3.2a 24.4±1.4c −181.3±9.7c 34.1±4.2c 75.6±5.5b 281.3±12.9a
    SBD 30.3±1.9b 39.3±2.2b −101.2±2.2b 69.7±2.5b 60.7±3.8bc 201.2±20.6b
    10~20 SR 26.5±2.0a 35.4±1.6c −81.0±1.1b 73.5±2.6b 64.6±7.7a 181.0±1.5a
    SP 28.8±0.6a 43.6±0.3b −108.6±5.7c 71.2±0.8b 56.4±8.0ab 208.6±34.2a
    SID 11.8±0.2b 33.4±0.9c −57.5±1.6a 88.2±0.2a 66.6±5.9a 157.5±12.5a
    SBD 13.4±1.0b 51.1±1.9a −83.8±2.5b 86.6±1.3a 48.9±4.2b 183.8±28.1a
    20~30 SR 45.3±1.0a 18.7±0.1b −110.9±0.9b 54.7±1.3b 81.3±0.1a 210.9±1.2a
    SP 47.0±4.3a 24.5±1.5b −141.7±6.8c 53.0±5.7b 75.5±11.4ab 241.7±9.1a
    SID 24.0±1.2b 23.1±2.4b −60.0±3.3a 76.0±3.4a 76.9±7.7ab 160.0±34.9a
    SBD 26.2±1.0b 41.3±1.5a −94.6±3.8b 73.8±1.8a 58.7±5.1b 194.6±35.6a
    30~40 SR 73.8±1.7a 47.2±4.1b −210.9±13.7c 26.2±2.3c 52.8±5.4a 310.9±18.3a
    SP 70.4±0.5a 77.9±1.9a −235.0±5.3c 29.6±0.7c 22.1±2.5b 335.0±7.1a
    SID 21.9±1.7c 40.4±2.7b −64.2±5.8a 78.1±2.0a 59.6±3.6a 164.2±19.1b
    SBD 39.7±1.5b 47.7±1.5b −101.4±3.4b 60.3±3.8b 52.3±1.8a 201.4±34.6b
      SR: 秸秆还田、土壤旋耕; SP: 秸秆还田、土壤深耕; SID: 秸秆集中深混埋至非种植带(40 cm宽)的0~40 cm土层; SBD: 秸秆集中深埋至30~40 cm土层。同一土层不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。SR: straw mulching and rotary tillage; SP: straw mulching and deep ploughing; SID: straw incorporated into 0−40 cm layer of 40 cm wide no-wheat planting belt; SBD: straw buried into 30−40 cm soil layer. Different lowercase letters in the same soil layer indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  耕作与秸秆还田方式对土壤团聚体氮素分布的影响

    Table  2.   Effects of tillage and straw returning methods on nitrogen contents of soil aggregates with different sizes

    土层深度
    Soil depth (cm)
    处理
    Treatment
    团聚体全氮含量 Nitrogen content in soil aggregates (g∙kg−1)
    > 2 mm1~2 mm0.25~1 mm0.053~0.25 mm< 0.053 mm
    0~10RT0.85±0.02ab0.84±0.02b0.85±0.03b0.72±0.03b1.29±0.21b
    SR0.99±0.13a0.91±0.10b0.91±0.10ab0.76±0.06ab1.27±0.17b
    SP1.08±0.02a1.16±0.07a1.14±0.08a0.93±0.03a2.01±0.27a
    SID0.61±0.03bc0.58±0.01c0.53±0.01c0.44±0.02c0.74±0.03bc
    SBD0.53±0.12c0.49±0.11c0.47±0.10c0.36±0.10c0.53±0.19c
    10~20RT0.59±0.02ab0.58±0.01bc0.54±0.01bc0.47±0.02a0.65±0.05ab
    SR0.82±0.15a0.93±0.12a0.87±0.11a0.75±0.09a1.07±0.18a
    SP0.81±0.05a0.80±0.03ab0.74±0.08ab0.64±0.08a0.99±0.09ab
    SID0.60±0.04ab0.61±0.09bc0.57±0.06abc0.52±0.16a0.55±0.02b
    SBD0.45±0.15b0.39±0.15c0.38±0.15c0.43±0.16a0.54±0.22b
    20~30RT0.49±0.03a0.42±0.03a0.39±0.03a0.34±0.02a0.53±0.09a
    SR0.57±0.05a0.59±0.05a0.51±0.06a0.46±0.05a0.68±0.06a
    SP0.49±0.00a0.47±0.02a0.41±0.01a0.34±0.02a0.53±0.09a
    SID0.58±0.03a0.58±0.12a0.52±0.07a0.39±0.08a0.46±0.04a
    SBD0.56±0.22a0.50±0.22a0.47±0.19a0.50±0.20a0.60±0.27a
    30~40RT0.40±0.02bc0.36±0.01bc0.33±0.01bc0.30±0.01c0.45±0.04b
    SR0.48±0.07b0.43±0.03b0.35±0.03bc0.32±0.03bc0.44±0.04b
    SP0.29±0.01c0.26±0.01c0.21±0.01c0.41±0.01b0.41±0.01b
    SID0.45±0.01b0.46±0.01b0.38±0.02b0.32±0.02bc0.47±0.08b
    SBD0.72±0.03a0.68±0.09a0.56±0.10a0.51±0.06a0.79±0.12a
      RT: 旋耕, 无秸秆还田; SR: 秸秆还田、土壤旋耕; SP: 秸秆还田, 土壤深耕; SID: 秸秆集中深混埋至非种植带(40 cm宽)的0~40 cm土层; SBD: 秸秆集中深埋至30~40 cm土层。同一土层不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。RT: rotary tillage without straw returning; SR: straw mulching and rotary tillage; SP: straw mulching and deep ploughing; SID: straw incorporated into 0−40 cm layer of 40 cm wide no-wheat planting belt; SBD: straw buried into 30−40 cm soil layer. Different lowercase letters in the same soil layer indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  耕作与秸秆还田方式对土壤团聚体全氮贡献率的影响

    Table  3.   Contribution rates of soil aggregates with different sizes to soil nitrogen under tillage and straw returning methods

    土层深度
    Soil depth (cm)
    处理
    Treatment
    团聚体全氮相对贡献率 Relative contribution rate of soil aggregate to soil nitrogen (%)
    > 2 mm 1~2 mm 0.25~1 mm 0.053~0.25 mm < 0.053 mm
    0~10RT54.1±6.5a9.6±1.8b18.0±2.9b4.5±0.5a8.8±2.9a
    SR23.7±3.8bc20.9±1.5a29.1±5.0b6.2±0.5a2.4±0.4b
    SP34.4±1.8b9.0±1.5b31.7±4.4b5.5±0.4a1.8±0.2b
    SID19.0±3.3c16.9±2.2a49.7±7.4a7.3±0.3a3.8±0.4b
    SBD16.6±2.8c10.7±1.8b27.6±7.1b5.7±2.7a1.8±0.6b
    10~20RT57.6±10.5a8.8±1.5a19.9±2.4a5.4±0.8a6.0±3.7a
    SR28.1±3.6c11.9±1.5a31.9±0.4a7.7±0.5a3.0±0.4a
    SP32.6±6.5bc9.8±1.1a33.8±10.9a6.6±1.2a2.0±0.1a
    SID50.8±2.9ab12.8±2.8a26.5±2.7a5.9±1.4a1.9±0.5a
    SBD23.4±4.4c9.3±3.4a16.9±6.2a5.5±1.8a1.8±0.6a
    20~30RT45.6±10.2a8.5±1.2b37.3±5.0a11.7±2.5a7.7±4.5a
    SR31.2±2.6a16.7±1.6a38.7±3.4a9.5±1.4ab3.2±0.3a
    SP25.2±2.3a9.3±3.0b28.7±0.4ab6.4±0.0ab2.9±1.3a
    SID43.3±7.3a15.8±2.0a32.5±4.3ab5.8±0.9b3.6±1.1a
    SBD27.1±8.4a9.3±3.3b20.0±6.9b6.1±2.3b2.0±0.8a
    30~40RT22.3±5.5bc9.0±0.5a42.3±2.0ab16.6±0.3a10.1±0.9a
    SR18.2±1.0c11.0±0.6a55.0±0.2a12.2±0.9ab5.4±0.2b
    SP12.2±0.1c2.6±0.0b33.9±0.0b10.4±0.1b2.3±0.0c
    SID56.5±24.5ab11.4±0.7a29.1±4.0b6.5±1.5b2.2±0.8c
    SBD38.6±7a11.9±1a38.2±8.0b12.0±3ab1.7±1c
      RT: 旋耕, 无秸秆还田; SR: 秸秆还田、土壤旋耕; SP: 秸秆还田, 土壤深耕; SID: 秸秆集中深混埋至非种植带(40 cm宽)的0~40 cm土层; SBD: 秸秆集中深埋至30~40 cm土层。同一土层不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。RT: rotary tillage without straw returning; SR: straw mulching and rotary tillage; SP: straw mulching and deep ploughing; SID: straw incorporated into 0−40 cm layer of 40 cm wide no-wheat planting belt; SBD: straw buried into 30−40 cm soil layer. Different lowercase letters in the same soil layer indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  耕作与秸秆还田方式对土壤团聚体有机碳分布的影响

    Table  4.   Effects of tillage and straw returning methods on organic carbon contents in soil aggregate with different sizes

    土层深度
    Soil depth (cm)
    处理
    Treatment
    团聚体有机碳含量 Organic carbon content in soil aggregates (g∙kg−1)
    > 2 mm 1~2 mm 0.25~1 mm 0.053~0.25 mm < 0.053 mm
    0~10SR13.0±0.7a12.2±0.4b12.0±0.2b10.8±0.4b10.6±0.4a
    SP13.9±0.8a15.4±0.1a14.5±1.0a12.9±1.0a12.3±0.9a
    SID9.1±0.1b8.7±0.2d7.3±0.2d6.0±0.2c7.5±0.6b
    SBD10.4±0.6b9.9±0.4c9.1±0.1c7.4±0.3c7.7±0.2b
    10~20SR10.9±1.1a11.5±1.3a10.4±1.0a9.6±1.1a9.6±1.1a
    SP10.6±0.9a11.1±0.7a10.1±1.1a9.2±1.2a8.8±0.8ab
    SID8.9±0.7a9.2±1.1a8.0±0.9a6.3±0.4b6.5±0.7b
    SBD9.3±0.2a9.4±0.2a8.7±0.3a7.5±0.2ab6.6±0.6b
    20~30SR7.0±0.6b6.8±0.6b6.2±0.6b5.5±0.5b6.1±0.7a
    SP7.3±0.2b7.2±0.3b6.2±0.3b5.4±0.3b5.9±0.5a
    SID8.8±0.5a8.6±0.8ab7.4±0.3b5.9±0.4b6.0±0.3a
    SBD10.1±0.2a10.0±0.8a9.1±0.5a7.9±0.3a7.4±0.2a
    30~40SR6.1±0.9bc5.6±0.5b4.2±0.2b3.9±0.2b4.2±0.2bc
    SP4.8±0.0c4.8±0.0b4.0±0.0b3.6±0.0b3.9±0.0c
    SID8.0±0.8ab8.3±1.0a7.3±1.2a5.5±0.4a5.3±0.3ab
    SBD9.8±0.4a9.8±0.4a7.6±0.6a5.8±0.7a6.3±0.6a
      SR: 秸秆还田、土壤旋耕; SP: 秸秆还田、土壤深耕; SID: 秸秆集中深混埋至非种植带(40 cm宽)的0~40 cm土层; SBD: 秸秆集中深埋至30~40 cm土层。同一土层不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P<0.05)。SR: straw mulching and rotary tillage; SP: straw mulching and deep ploughing; SID: straw incorporated into 0−40 cm layer of 40 cm wide no-wheat planting belt; SBD: straw buried into 30−40 cm soil layer. Different lowercase letters in the same soil layer indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.
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    表  5  耕作与秸秆还田方式对土壤团聚体有机碳贡献率的影响

    Table  5.   Contribution rates of soil aggregates with different sizes to soil organic carbon % 

    土层深度
    Soil depth (cm)
    处理
    Treatment
    团聚体有机碳相对贡献率 Relative contribution rate of soil aggregate to soil organic carbon
    > 2 mm 1~2 mm 0.25~1 mm 0.053~0.25 mm < 0.053 mm
    0~10SR29.4±2.4b26.8±1.1a36.0±2.7a8.3±0.2a1.9±0.2ab
    SP43.2±2.7a11.9±2.5c39.1±3.4a7.6±0.9a1.2±0.3b
    SID19.3±3.2b17.1±0.4bc47.4±7.1a7.0±0.7a2.8±0.8a
    SBD28.2±5.3b18.6±2.6b43.3±4.5a8.8±2.3a2.2±0.1ab
    10~20SR38.4±0.2a15.0±1.8a39.0±1.3a10.0±0.5a2.9±0.5a
    SP41.8±10.4a13.2±2.2a41.9±9.7a8.8±0.5a1.7±0.3b
    SID59.6±8.7a14.7±2.3a29.3±3.2a5.8±0.6b1.7±0.3b
    SBD39.9±2.4a17.3±1.1a30.2±0.8a8.0±0.8a1.8±0.2b
    20~30SR34.5±0.2b17.5±0.2a42.4±0.3a10.3±1.0a2.6±0.0a
    SP37.1±2.4b14.2±2.8a43.5±0.4a10.2±0.2a3.6±1.2a
    SID47.6±5.4a17.7±1.7a34.4±4.7ab6.7±1.3b2.5±0.6a
    SBD42.3±1.1ab16.3±0.7a31.1±2.9b8.0±0.4ab2.1±0.2a
    30~40SR22.3±3.1b13.5±1.5a63.4±3.2a14.4±1.3ab5.0±0.6a
    SP21.2±0.1b5.2±0.1b68.4±0.6a18.8±0.6a2.3±0.1b
    SID40.4±4.6a13.4±0.1a36.5±3.7b7.3±1.3c1.5±0.4b
    SBD42.1±3.1a14.4±1.4a42.0±2.3b10.4±2.0bc2.1±0.7b
      SR: 秸秆还田、土壤旋耕; SP: 秸秆还田、土壤深耕; SID: 秸秆集中深混埋至非种植带(40 cm宽)的0~40 cm土层; SBD: 秸秆集中深埋至30~40 cm土层。同一土层不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著水平(P<0.05)。SR: straw mulching and rotary tillage; SP: straw mulching and deep ploughing; SID: straw incorporated into 0−40 cm layer of 40 cm wide no-wheat planting belt; SBD: straw buried into 30−40 cm soil layer. Different lowercase letters in the same soil layer indicate significant differences among treatments at P<0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-09-30
  • 录用日期:  2020-12-21
  • 网络出版日期:  2021-08-19
  • 刊出日期:  2021-09-06

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