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农田防护林对田间地表节肢动物分布的影响——以昌图县为例

边振兴 杨祎博 果晓玉 张宇飞 于淼

边振兴, 杨祎博, 果晓玉, 张宇飞, 于淼. 农田防护林对田间地表节肢动物分布的影响——以昌图县为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(12): 1835-1846. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200786
引用本文: 边振兴, 杨祎博, 果晓玉, 张宇飞, 于淼. 农田防护林对田间地表节肢动物分布的影响——以昌图县为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(12): 1835-1846. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200786
BIAN Zhenxing, YANG Yibo, GUO Xiaoyu, ZHANG Yufei, YU Miao. The effects of farmland shelterbelts on surface arthropod distribution: A case study in Changtu County, China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(12): 1835-1846. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200786
Citation: BIAN Zhenxing, YANG Yibo, GUO Xiaoyu, ZHANG Yufei, YU Miao. The effects of farmland shelterbelts on surface arthropod distribution: A case study in Changtu County, China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(12): 1835-1846. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200786

农田防护林对田间地表节肢动物分布的影响——以昌图县为例

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200786
基金项目: 

辽宁省自然科学基金项目 01064219009

详细信息
    作者简介:

    边振兴, 主要从事国土空间生态修复、耕地生态保护、农业景观生态方面研究。E-mail:zhx-bian@syau.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    于淼, 主要从事数理统计与景观生态方面研究。E-mail:yumiao77@163.com

  • 中图分类号: P901

The effects of farmland shelterbelts on surface arthropod distribution: A case study in Changtu County, China

Funds: 

the Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province 01064219009

More Information
  • 摘要: 提升农田生物多样性是当前生态农业研究的热点问题。为探讨农田防护林的生物多样性保护功能,本研究在辽宁省昌图县金家镇选取8个农田-防护林单元(每个单元即为1个田块),使用陷阱法调查了不同类型林带(完整型、残缺型、消亡型)相邻的农田中,距林带不同距离处(0 m、50 m、100 m、150 m、200 m)地表节肢动物的分布情况,同时记录林带内的植被群落特征。采用方差分析以及群落排序的方法,分析了林带类型、距离梯度以及林带植被结构对农田地表节肢动物分布的影响。研究结果表明:1)与消亡型相比,完整型和残缺型林带相邻的农田物种多度显著较高,物种多样性在各类型林带农田间无显著差异,与完整型及残缺型林带相邻的农田维持着区别于消亡型林带的地表节肢动物群落结构。2)完整型和残缺型林带相邻的农田物种多度梯度变化显著,随距林带距离的增加均呈由低到高的变化趋势;不同类型林带农田中,物种多样性随距林带距离的增加逐渐递减,边缘效应显著。3)林带中草本层物种多度和乔木层盖度是影响农田地表节肢动物群落分布的主要因子,共解释了35.4%的节肢动物数量变异;不同节肢动物物种对林带植被结构的响应存在差异,步甲和蜘蛛作为当地农业景观中主要的天敌类群,与上述林带植被结构因子关系密切:林带内较高的草本层物种多度有利于增加农田中某些步甲常见种的多样性,而较高的乔木层盖度有利于增加蜘蛛目常见科的多样性。研究结果表明,农田防护林作为研究区主要的非耕作生境类型,能够显著提升相邻农田中地表节肢动物的多度,对于物种多样性的提升作用则不明显;林带内草本层物种多度以及乔木层盖度对蜘蛛、步甲等多类天敌多样性保护具有积极作用。因此,加强农业景观中现有林地的改造和提升,如营造适宜盖度的上层林木以及丰富的林下植被,能够提升现有林地的生境质量,进一步发挥其对农田生物多样性的保育功能。
  • 图  1  研究区以及8个采样单元的位置示意图

    Figure  1.  Location of the study area and distribution of 8 sampling units

    图  2  不同类型林带示意及采样单元内陷阱布设方案

    Figure  2.  Sketch map of different shelterbelt types and trap layout scheme in the sampling unit

    图  3  不同类型林带农田地表节肢动物多度、物种数以及多样性

    T1:完整型; T2:残缺型; T3:消亡型草地带; T4:消亡型裸地带。不同小写字母表示不同处理间在P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  3.  Abundance, species number and diversity of surface arthropods in adjacent farmlands with different shelterbelt types

    T1: complete shelterbelt; T2: incomplete shelterbelt; T3: grass fields boundary; T4: bare fields boundary. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among treatments at P < 0.05 level.

    图  4  不同类型林带农田地表节肢动物群落非度量多维度分析(NMDS)

    T1:完整型; T2:残缺型; T3:消亡型草地带; T4:消亡型裸地带。

    Figure  4.  Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (NMDS) based on Chord Measure for surface arthropods community in adjacent farmlands with different shelterbelt types

    T1: complete shelterbelt; T2: incomplete shelterbelt; T3: grass fields boundary; T4: bare fields boundary.

    图  5  不同类型林带农田不同距离梯度处地表节肢动物多度分布

    T1:完整型; T2:残缺型; T3:消亡型草地带; T4:消亡型裸地带。不同小写字母表示不同处理间在P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  5.  Species abundances of surface arthropods at different distance gradients in adjacent farmland with different shelterbelt types

    T1: complete shelterbelt; T2: incomplete shelterbelt; T3: grass fields boundary; T4: bare fields boundary. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among treatments at P < 0.05 level.

    图  6  不同类型林带农田不同距离梯度处地表节肢动物多样性指数

    T1:完整型; T2:残缺型; T3:消亡型草地带; T4:消亡型裸地带。不同小写字母表示不同处理间在P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  6.  Diversity indexes of surface arthropods at different distance gradients in adjacent farmland with different shelterbelt types

    T1: complete shelterbelt; T2: incomplete shelterbelt; T3: grass fields boundary; T4: bare fields boundary. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among treatments at P < 0.05 level.

    图  7  农田地表节肢动物群落分布与2个关键解释变量[草本层物种多度(HA)和乔木层盖度(TC)]的RDA二维排序图

    7a为所有物种与关键解释变量之间关系的二维排序图; 7b为优势及常见物种、关键解释变量以及样本三者关系的二维排序图。物种编号SP1-SP38同表 2。图中●代表与完整型林带相邻的农田; ■代表与残缺型林带相邻的农田; ◆代表与消亡型草地带相邻的农田; ▼代表与消亡型裸地带相邻的农田。

    Figure  7.  RDA two-dimensional ordination diagram of the relationships between 2 key explanatory variables (herbaceous species abundance, HA; tree coverage, TC) with distribution of the surface arthropod community in farmland

    7a is the two-dimensional ordination diagram of the relationships between all species and key explanatory variables; 7b is the two-dimensional ordination diagram of the relationships among dominant and common species, key explanatory variables, and samples. The species numbers SP1-SP38 are shown in the table 2. ● indicates the farmland adjacent to complete shelterbelt; ■ indicates the farmland adjacent to incomplete shelterbelt; ◆ indicates the farmland with grass fields boundary; ▼ indicates the farmland with bare fields boundary.

    表  1  林带类型划定表

    Table  1.   Delineation of shelterbelt types

    林带类型
    Shelterbelt type
    林带连续性
    Continuity of shelterbelt (%)
    草本层盖度
    Herbaceous coverage (%)
    林带编号
    Serial number of shelterbelt
    T1 完整型Complete shelterbelt 97.18±3.16 51.36±20.26 1W, 2E, 2W, 3S, 4S, 5E, 5S, 5W, 6E, 7W, 8N
    T2 残缺型Incomplete shelterbelt 50.63±17.00 68.63±26.79 1N, 1E, 2S, 3W, 4N, 4E, 5N, 6N
    T3 消亡型草地带Grass fields boundary 62.08±19.39 2N, 6S, 7E, 7S, 8S, 8W
    T4 消亡型裸地带Bare fields boundary 3N, 3E, 6W, 7N, 8E
    数字1-8代表图 1中的8个取样单元; 字母E、W、S、N分别代表取样单元内东侧、西侧、南侧、北侧林带。The numbers 1-8 represent 8 sampling units shown in the figure 1; the letters E, W, S, and N represent the east, west, south, and north shelterbelts within the sampling unit, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  农田防护林内农田地表节肢动物类型及数量统计表

    Table  2.   Types and quantities of surface arthropods in farmland with shelterbelts

    类群
    Group
    物种编码
    Species code
    物种
    Species
    数量
    Quantity
    优势度
    Degree of dominance
    蝗科Acrididae SP1 中华蚱蜢Acrida cinerea 11 +
    SP2 辽宁金色蝗Chrysacris liaoningensis 3 +
    SP3 大垫尖翅蝗Epacromius coerulipes 45 +
    SP4 笨蝗Haplotropis brunneriana 4 +
    蜉金龟科Aphodiidae SP5 黑蜉金龟Aphodius breviusculus 2 +
    步甲科Carabidae SP6 金星步甲Calosoma chinensis 404 ++
    SP7 大星步甲Calosoma maximoviczi 420 ++
    SP8 麻青步甲Chlaenius junceus 1 458 +++
    SP9 附边青步甲Chlaenius prostenus 427 ++
    SP10 赤褐婪步甲Harpalus rubefactus 20 +
    SP11 中华婪步甲Harpalus sinicus 1 929 +++
    虎甲科Cicindelidae SP12 斜斑虎甲Cicindela germanica 1 +
    SP13 细虎甲Cicindela gracilis 15 +
    瓢虫科Coccinellidae SP14 异色瓢虫Harmonia axyridis 11 +
    SP15 龟纹瓢虫Propylea japonica 1 +
    SP16 鞘翅目幼虫Coleoptera larvae 3 +
    粪金龟科Geotrupidae SP17 戴锤角粪金龟Bolbotrypes davidis 10 +
    蟋蟀科Gryllidae SP18 多伊棺头蟋Loxoblemmus doenitzi 33 +
    SP19 黄脸油葫芦Teleogryllus emma 6 025 +++
    蠼螋科Labiduridae SP20 蠼螋Labidura japonica 3 +
    长蝽科Lygaeidae SP21 角红长蝽Lygaeus hanseni 1 +
    鳃金龟科Melolonthidae SP22 东北大黑鳃金龟Holotrichia diomphalia 2 +
    潮虫科Oniscidae SP23 鼠妇Armadillidium vulgare 14 +
    螟蛾科Pyralidae SP24 亚洲玉米螟Ostrinia furnacalis 3 +
    红蝽科Pyrrhocoridae SP25 地红蝽Pyrrhocoris tibialis 123 ++
    金龟科Scarab SP26 婪嗡蜣螂Onthophagus lenzi 38 +
    隐翅虫科Staphylinidae SP27 刺松隐翅虫Pinophilus punctatissimus 4 +
    埋葬甲科Staphylinoidea SP28 日负葬甲Nicrophorus japonicus 6 +
    拟步甲科Tenebrionindae SP29 沙潜Opatrum subaratum 29 +
    叶蜂科Tenthredinidae SP30 麦叶蜂Dolerus tritici 2 +
    蜘蛛目Araneae SP31 漏斗蛛科Agelenidae 107 +
    SP32 近管蛛科Anyphaenidae 1 +
    SP33 栉足蛛科Ctenidae 1 +
    SP34 弱斑蛛科Ischnothyreus 22 +
    SP35 皿蛛科Linyphiidae 73 +
    SP36 狼蛛科Lycosidae 2 +
    SP37 幽灵蛛科Pholcidae 801 ++
    SP38 转蛛科Trochanteriidae 176 ++
    合计Sum 12 230
    +++表示个体数占总捕获量的10%以上, ++表示个体数占总捕获量的1%~10%, +表示个体数占总捕获量的1%以下。+++ indicates that the number of individuals accounts for more than 10% of the total captures; ++ indicates that the number of individuals accounts for 1%-10% of the total captures; + indicates that the number of individuals accounts for less than 1% of the total captures.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  林带类型及距离梯度对农田地表节肢动物分布影响的双因素方差分析

    Table  3.   Two-way ANOVA of shelterbelt type and distance gradient on surface arthropods in adjacent farmland

    因子
    Factor
    自由度
    Degree of freedom
    物种多度
    Abundance
    物种数
    Number of species
    多样性指数
    Shannon-Wiener index
    优势度指数
    Simpson index
    林带类型Shelterbelt type 3 9.041** 7.788** 4.183** 5.068**
    距离梯度Distance gradient 4 1.386 2.547* 3.382* 1.672
    林带类型×距离梯度Shelterbelt type × distance gradient 12 0.516 0.892 0.482 0.501
    *和**分别表示P < 0.05和P < 0.01水平上影响显著。* and ** indicate significant effects at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同类型林带农田地表节肢动物RDA各排序轴的特征值、物种与环境因子的相关系数

    Table  4.   Eigenvalues of the RDA ordination axes and species-environment correlations of surface arthropods in adjacent farmland with different shelterbelt types

    排序轴1 Axis 1 排序轴2 Axis 2 排序轴3 Axis 3 排序轴4 Axis 4
    特征值Eigenvalues 0.380 0.047 0.027 0.003
    物种与环境因子相关性
    Species-environment correlations
    0.806 0.573 0.548 0.233
    累积解释物种变异百分数
    Cumulative percentage of variation explained
    38.01 42.72 45.40 45.65
    累积解释物种和环境关系变异百分数
    Cumulative percentage of fitted variation explained
    82.92 93.19 99.03 99.58
    第1典型轴显著性的蒙特卡洛置换检验
    Monte-Carlo permutation test of significance of the 1st typical axis
    F=14.7, P=0.002
    所有典型轴显著性的蒙特卡洛置换检验
    Monte-Carlo permutation test of significance of all the typical axes
    F=4.1, P=0.002
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  林带植被结构因子对农田地表节肢动物群落分布独立影响作用的偏RDA分析

    Table  5.   Partial RDA of relative contribution of shelterbelt vegetation structure factors to variation of surface arthropod community distribution in farmland with shelterbelts

    植被结构因子Vegetation structure factor 解释率Explaination rate (%) F P
    草本层物种多度
    Herb species abundance
    28.8 11.3 0.004
    乔木层盖度Tree coverage 6.6 2.8 0.032
    草本层盖度Herb coverage 4.2 1.8 0.136
    边界带宽度Boundary width 2.6 1.1 0.316
    草本层丰富度Herb richness 3.6 1.6 0.176
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-09-29
  • 录用日期:  2020-10-08
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