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浮萍覆盖对稻田杂草群落组成及多样性的影响

王丰 赖彦岑 唐宗翔 郑敏敏 史俊 顾麦云 沈健英 曹林奎 沙之敏

王丰, 赖彦岑, 唐宗翔, 郑敏敏, 史俊, 顾麦云, 沈健英, 曹林奎, 沙之敏. 浮萍覆盖对稻田杂草群落组成及多样性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(4): 672-682. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200581
引用本文: 王丰, 赖彦岑, 唐宗翔, 郑敏敏, 史俊, 顾麦云, 沈健英, 曹林奎, 沙之敏. 浮萍覆盖对稻田杂草群落组成及多样性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2021, 29(4): 672-682. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200581
WANG Feng, LAI Yancen, TANG Zongxiang, ZHENG Minmin, SHI Jun, GU Maiyun, SHEN Jianying, CAO Linkui, SHA Zhimin. Effects of duckweed mulching on composition and diversity of weed communities in paddy fields[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(4): 672-682. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200581
Citation: WANG Feng, LAI Yancen, TANG Zongxiang, ZHENG Minmin, SHI Jun, GU Maiyun, SHEN Jianying, CAO Linkui, SHA Zhimin. Effects of duckweed mulching on composition and diversity of weed communities in paddy fields[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2021, 29(4): 672-682. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200581

浮萍覆盖对稻田杂草群落组成及多样性的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200581
基金项目: 

上海市科技兴农推广项目 (2018) No. 4-7

国家重点研发计划课题 2016YFD08011106

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王丰, 主要研究方向为植物营养与农田杂草控制。E-mail: wangfeng123@sjtu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    沙之敏, 主要研究方向为植物营养与农业面源污染防控。E-mail: zhiminsha@sjtu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S451.1

Effects of duckweed mulching on composition and diversity of weed communities in paddy fields

Funds: 

Shanghai Science and Technology Promotion Project (2018) No. 4-7

the National Key Research and Development Program of China 2016YFD08011106

More Information
  • 摘要: 在农业可持续发展的背景下,稻田杂草防控需要兼顾生物多样性的保护。为了解浮萍覆盖对稻田杂草群落组成及物种多样性的影响,运用群落生态学的方法,研究了多根紫萍覆盖(SP)、少根紫萍覆盖(LP)和不投放浮萍(CK)3种处理下稻田杂草发生量和群落多样性在水稻4个生育期(分蘖期、孕穗期、扬花期和成熟期)的动态变化,并对水稻产量进行分析。结果表明:SP和LP处理在前两生育期分别比CK显著降低杂草密度60.3%~75.8%和81.1%~90.4%,在整个水稻生育期能分别降低杂草鲜重生物量48.0%以上和81.3%以上,杂草群落中阔叶类杂草比例明显下降。不同处理下,稻田最主要杂草类别均是莎草科杂草;不同处理的杂草群落中重要杂草的种类和相对重要程度都有较大差异,SP和LP处理重要值较高的杂草均为莎草科的萤蔺和碎米莎草,CK处理重要值较高的杂草则为阔叶类的鸭舌草;在多数生育期,两种浮萍覆盖下的杂草群落的Margalef丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Simpson优势度指数均与CK无显著差异。SP和LP处理水稻的每穗粒数和穗重均有不同程度显著提高,SP处理的水稻产量显著提高28.0%。综合上述分析,稻田投放初始覆盖面积70.0%的多根紫萍和少根紫萍都能在降低稻田杂草密度和生物量的同时维持杂草群落的多样性,且多根紫萍覆盖能促进水稻产量增长,对保护稻田生物多样性和促进农业可持续发展有重要意义。
  • 图  1  试验地及调查区的示意图

    Figure  1.  Sketch of the experimental field and survey areas

    图  2  不同处理下水稻不同生育期各类稻田杂草的密度(A)和生物量(B)

    SP、LP和CK分别表示多根紫萍覆盖、少根紫萍覆盖和不投放浮萍对照。Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ分别表示水稻的分蘖期、孕穗期、扬花期和成熟期。不同小写字母表示同一水稻生育期不同处理间差异显著(P < 0.05), 不同大写字母表示同一处理水稻不同生育期间差异显著(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  2.  Densities (A) and biomasses (B) of different categories of weeds in paddy fields at different growth stages of rice under different treatments

    SP, LP and CK indicate Spirodela polyrrhiza mulching, Landoltia punctata mulching and no duckweed mulching. Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ indicate tillering stage, booting stage, flowering stage and maturing stage of rice. Different lowercase letters at the same rice growth stage show significant differences among treatments at P < 0.05 level. Different capital letters in the same treatment show significant differences among rice growth stages at P < 0.05 level.

    图  3  不同处理下水稻不同生育期各种稻田杂草的重要值

    SP、LP和CK分别表示多根紫萍覆盖、少根紫萍覆盖和不投放浮萍对照。Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ分别表示水稻的分蘖期、孕穗期、扬花期和成熟期。Ec.cr、Le.ch、Pa.pa、Cy.ir、Sc.ju、Al.ph、As.si、Hy.du、Ma.qu和Mo.va分别表示稗、千金子、双穗雀稗、碎米莎草、萤蔺、喜旱莲子草、紫云英、水鳖、苹和鸭舌草。虚线以上为重要杂草。

    Figure  3.  Important values of weed species in paddy fields at different growth stages of rice under different treatments

    SP, LP and CK indicate Spirodela polyrrhiza mulching, Landoltia punctata mulching and no duckweed mulching. Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ indicate tillering stage, booting stage, flowering stage and maturing stage of rice. Ec.cr, Le.ch, Pa.pa, Cy.ir, Sc.ju, Al.ph, As.si, Hy.du, Ma.qu and Mo.va indicate Echinochloa crus-galli, Leptochloa chinensis, Paspalum paspaloides, Cyperus iria, Scirpus juncoides, Alternanthera philoxeroides, Astragalus sinicus, Hydrocharis dubia, Marsilea quadrifolia and Monochoria vaginalis. Above the dashed line are important weeds.

    图  4  不同处理下水稻不同生育期稻田杂草群落的多样性指数

    SP、LP和CK分别表示多根紫萍覆盖、少根紫萍覆盖和不投放浮萍对照。Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ分别表示水稻生育期的分蘖期、孕穗期、扬花期和成熟期。不同小写字母表示同一水稻生育期不同处理间差异显著(P < 0.05), 不同大写字母表示同一处理水稻不同生育期间差异显著(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  4.  Diversity indices of weed communities in paddy fields at different growth stages of rice under different treatments

    SP, LP and CK indicate Spirodela polyrrhiza mulching, Landoltia punctata mulching and no duckweed mulching. Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ indicate tillering stage, booting stage, flowering stage and maturing stage of rice. Different lowercase letters at the same rice growth stage show significant differences among treatments at P < 0.05 level. Different capital letters in the same treatment show significant differences among rice growth stages at P < 0.05 level.

    图  5  不同处理下水稻不同生育期稻田杂草群落的UPGMA聚类

    SP、LP和CK分别表示多根紫萍覆盖、少根紫萍覆盖和不投放浮萍对照。Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ分别表示水稻生育期的分蘖期、孕穗期、扬花期和成熟期。

    Figure  5.  UPGMA clustering of weed communities in paddy fields at different growth stages of rice under different treatments

    SP, LP and CK indicate Spirodela polyrrhiza mulching, Landoltia punctata mulching and no duckweed mulching. Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ indicate tillering stage, booting stage, flowering stage and maturing stage of rice.

    表  1  不同处理下水稻不同生育期稻田杂草发生情况

    Table  1.   Occurrence of weed species in paddy fields at different rice growth stages under different treatments


    Family

    Genus

    Species
    SP LP CK
    禾本科
    Gramineae
    稗属
    Echinochloa

    Echinochloa crus-galli
    - - - - - - - - - - + +
    千金子属
    Leptochloa
    千金子
    Leptochloa chinensis
    + - - - + - - - - - - -
    雀稗属
    Paspalum
    双穗雀稗
    Paspalum paspaloides
    - + + - - + - + - - - +
    莎草科
    Cyperaceae
    莎草属
    Cyperus
    碎米莎草
    Cyperus iria
    - + + + + - + + - + + +
    藨草属
    Scirpus
    萤蔺
    Scirpus juncoides
    + + + + + + + + - - + -
    苋科
    Amaranthaceae
    莲子草属
    Alternanthera
    喜旱莲子草
    Alternanthera philoxeroides
    + + + - - + + + - + - +
    豆科
    Leguminosae
    黄耆属
    Astragalus
    紫云英
    Astragalus sinicus
    - - - + - - - + - - - -
    水鳖科
    Hydrocharitaceae
    水鳖属
    Hydrocharis
    水鳖
    Hydrocharis dubia
    - - + - - - - - - - - -
    苹科
    Marsileaceae
    苹属
    Marsilea

    Marsilea quadrifolia
    - - - - - - - - + + + +
    雨久花科
    Pontederiaceae
    雨久花属
    Monochoria
    鸭舌草
    Monochoria vaginalis
    + - - - - - - - + + + +
    SP、LP和CK分别表示多根紫萍覆盖、少根紫萍覆盖和不投放浮萍对照。Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ分别表示水稻的分蘖期、孕穗期、扬花期和成熟期。+表示杂草发生, -表示杂草不发生。SP, LP and CK indicate Spirodela polyrrhiza mulching, Landoltia punctata mulching and no duckweed mulching. Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ indicate tillering stage, booting stage, flowering stage and maturing stage of rice. + indicates weeds occurred. - indicates weeds did not occur.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同处理下水稻不同生育期稻田杂草群落间的Bray-Curtis相似性指数

    Table  2.   Bray-Curtis similarity indices among weed communities in paddy fields at different growth stages of rice under different treatments

    水稻生育时期
    Rice growth stage
    处理
    Treatment
    SP LP CK SP LP CK SP LP CK SP LP
    LP 0.72
    CK 0.07 0.00
    SP 0.73 0.66 0.00
    LP 0.78 0.58 0.00 0.86
    CK 0.13 0.17 0.69 0.20 0.06
    SP 0.59 0.65 0.00 0.82 0.68 0.31
    LP 0.53 0.57 0.00 0.66 0.53 0.31 0.78
    CK 0.16 0.25 0.64 0.23 0.10 0.77 0.25 0.25
    SP 0.46 0.64 0.00 0.60 0.46 0.25 0.73 0.87 0.25
    LP 0.41 0.53 0.00 0.66 0.53 0.30 0.77 0.68 0.25 0.67
    CK 0.16 0.14 0.54 0.29 0.16 0.74 0.30 0.23 0.76 0.14 0.26
    SP、LP和CK分别表示多根紫萍覆盖、少根紫萍覆盖和不投放浮萍对照。Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ分别表示水稻生育期的分蘖期、孕穗期、扬花期和成熟期。SP, LP and CK indicate Spirodela polyrrhiza mulching, Landoltia punctata mulching and no duckweed mulching. Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ indicate tillering stage, booting stage, flowering stage and maturing stage of rice.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同处理下的水稻产量性状

    Table  3.   Rice grain traits under different treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    有效穗数
    Effective panicle number
    (panicles∙m–2)
    每穗粒数
    Grain number per panicle
    结实率
    Filled grain percentage (%)
    千粒重
    1000-grain weight (g)
    穗长
    Panicle length (cm)
    穗重
    Panicle weight (g)
    产量
    Grain yield (t·hm–2)
    SP 218.4±9.6a 142.7±6.1a 93.62±1.56a 23.76±0.13a 14.24±0.13a 3.045±0.194a 6.964±0.544a
    LP 199.2±2.9a 123.7±2.6b 94.50±0.69a 23.55±0.14a 14.04±0.22a 2.798±0.063a 5.492±0.206b
    CK 225.6±15.4a 106.8±6.4c 94.94±0.88a 23.73±0.19a 13.76±0.20a 2.375±0.056b 5.441±0.534b
    SP、LP和CK分别表示多根紫萍覆盖、少根紫萍覆盖和不投放浮萍对照。同列不同小写字母表明处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。SP, LP and CK indicate Spirodela polyrrhiza mulching, Landoltia punctata mulching and no duckweed mulching. Different lowercase letters in the same column show significant differences among treatments at P < 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  水稻产量性状与各生育期杂草生物量的相关性

    Table  4.   Correlation between rice grain traits and weed biomass at different growth stages of rice

    生育期
    Growth stage
    有效穗数
    Effective panicle number
    每穗粒数
    Grain number per panicle
    结实率
    Filled grain percentage
    千粒重
    1000-grain weight
    穗长
    Panicle length
    穗重
    Panicle weight
    产量
    Grain yield
    杂草生物量
    Weed biomass
    0.094 –0.365 0.117 0.304 -0.286 -0.345 -0.190
    0.071 -0.586* 0.261 -0.083 -0.449 -0.525* -0.379
    0.136 -0.545* 0.165 -0.022 -0.442 -0.598* -0.317
    -0.151 -0.684** 0.265 0.038 -0.274 -0.631* -0.564*
    Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ分别表示水稻生育期的分蘖期、孕穗期、扬花期和成熟期。*和**分别表示显著(P < 0.05)和极显著(P < 0.01)相关。Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ indicate tillering stage, booting stage, flowering stage and maturing stage of rice. * and ** indicate significant correlation at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-07-18
  • 录用日期:  2020-10-25
  • 刊出日期:  2021-04-01

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