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立式筒仓反应器堆肥技术工艺优化研究

刘泽龙 王选 曹玉博 马林

刘泽龙, 王选, 曹玉博, 马林. 立式筒仓反应器堆肥技术工艺优化研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(12): 1979-1989. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200336
引用本文: 刘泽龙, 王选, 曹玉博, 马林. 立式筒仓反应器堆肥技术工艺优化研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(12): 1979-1989. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200336
LIU Zelong, WANG Xuan, CAO Yubo, MA Lin. Optimization of composting technology for vertical silo reactor[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(12): 1979-1989. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200336
Citation: LIU Zelong, WANG Xuan, CAO Yubo, MA Lin. Optimization of composting technology for vertical silo reactor[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(12): 1979-1989. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200336

立式筒仓反应器堆肥技术工艺优化研究

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200336
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2018YFC0213300

国家重点研发计划项目 2017YFD0801404-2

国家自然科学基金项目 31902207

中国科学院STS项目 KFJ-STS-ZDTP-053

中国科学院STS项目 KFJ-STS-QYZD-160

河北省重点研发项目 19227305D

河北省重点研发项目 20327301D

河北省现代农业产业技术体系奶牛产业创新团队项目 HBCT2018120206

河北省现代农业产业技术体系蛋肉鸡产业创新团队项目 HBCT2018150209

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘泽龙, 主要从事粪污养分管理研究。E-mail:445770028@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    马林, 主要从事农业生态学和养分管理研究。E-mail:malin1979@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: X713

Optimization of composting technology for vertical silo reactor

Funds: 

the National Key Research and Development Program of China 2018YFC0213300

the National Key Research and Development Program of China 2017YFD0801404-2

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 31902207

the STS Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences KFJ-STS-ZDTP-053

the STS Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences KFJ-STS-QYZD-160

the Key R & D Projects of Hebei Province 19227305D

the Key R & D Projects of Hebei Province 20327301D

Hebei Dairy Cattle Innovation Team of Modern Agroindustry Technology Research System HBCT2018120206

Hebei Poultry Innovation Team of Modern Agroindustry Technology Research System HBCT2018150209

More Information
  • 摘要: 反应器堆肥技术作为一种新型快速堆肥方式逐渐被人们所认可,该技术包括反应器堆肥处理和陈化两个阶段,但反应器堆肥时长和通气方式等工艺参数对堆肥全过程的影响尚不清楚。因此,本研究立足生产中的实际问题,利用12 m3立式堆肥反应器,开展了反应器堆肥工艺优化调控试验,以鸡粪和锯末为原料,分别研究了连续供气和间歇供气(风机开3 min,关7 min)两种供气方式下,反应器处理周期对堆肥有机质降解率、产品含水率、氮素损失和运行成本的影响。研究结果表明:反应器堆肥10 d比2 d的处理物料有机质降解率分别增加60.7%(间歇)和66.2%(连续),产品含水率分别降低41.2%(间歇)和40.7%(连续)。反应器堆肥阶段是物料降解的主要阶段,利用反应器堆肥的时长越长,堆肥产品生产时间越短;但运行成本的增加也对反应器堆肥时长造成了限制,同时增加反应器堆肥时长也会增加堆肥物料的氮素损失,其中连续供气反应器堆肥10 d比2 d氮素损失增加17.5%。连续供气方式可提高堆肥效率,较间歇供气处理堆肥周期平均缩短32.1%,产品全氮含量平均提高7.4%,虽然反应器堆肥阶段每日能耗较间歇供气高20.2%,但堆肥周期的缩短使全程连续供气平均运行成本降低16.5%。其中,连续供气下反应器中处理6 d、8 d和10 d,堆肥产品理化性质无显著差异。综合考虑堆肥效率、产品和经济,本试验建议选择“连续供气方式+反应器内堆肥8 d”处理,既可提高反应器堆肥处理效率,在实际生产中又具有较高的经济效益潜力。
  • 图  1  试验设备: 12 m3智能堆肥反应器示意图

    Figure  1.  Physical picture of 12 m3 intelligent composting reactor

    图  2  反应器通气方式和堆肥时长对堆肥温度的影响(a:间歇供气反应器堆肥阶段; b:连续供气反应器堆肥阶段; c:间歇供气陈化阶段; d:连续供气陈化阶段)

    图c和d中, 箭头指示陈化阶段的翻堆时间。R2:反应器处理2 d; R4:反应器处理4 d; R6:反应器处理6 d; R8:反应器处理8 d; R10:反应器处理10 d; C:连续供气; I:间歇供气。

    Figure  2.  Impact of aeration pattern and processing time of reactor on temperature during composting processing (a: intermittent aeration at reactor composting stage; b: continuous aeration at reactor composting stage; c: intermittent gas supply at maturing stage; d: continuous gas supply at maturing stage)

    In figure c and d, the arrows showed the turn over times of compost at maturing stage. R2: reactor composting for 2 days; R4: reactor composting for 4 days; R6: reactor composting for 6 days; R8: reactor composting for 8 days; R10: reactor composting for 10 days; C: continuous aeration; I: intermittent aeration.

    图  3  反应器通气方式和堆肥时长对物料有机质降解率的影响

    R2:反应器处理2 d; R4:反应器处理4 d; R6:反应器处理6 d; R8:反应器处理8 d; R10:反应器处理10 d; C:连续供气; I:间歇供气。当发芽指数≥70%时, 即认为陈化结束。a-d为图柱整体显著性分析结果, 不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  3.  Impact of aeration pattern and processing time of reactor on the total organic matter degradation during composting processing

    R2: reactor composting for 2 days; R4: reactor composting for 4 days; R6: reactor composting for 6 days; R8: reactor composting for 8 days; R10: reactor composting for 10 days; C: continuous aeration; I: intermittent aeration. When the material germination index ≥70%, it is considered that the maturing stage is over. a-d above the bars are the overall significance analysis results. Different lowercase letters show significant differences at P < 0.05 level.

    图  4  反应器通气方式和堆肥时长对物料含水率的影响

    RM:待处理的混合物料; R2:反应器处理2 d; R4:反应器处理4 d; R6:反应器处理6 d; R8:反应器处理8 d; R10:反应器处理10 d; C:连续供气; I:间歇供气。当发芽指数≥70%时, 即认为陈化结束。a-g为图柱整体显著性分析结果, 不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  4.  Impact of aeration pattern and processing time of reactor on the moisture content of composted materials during composting processing

    RM: mixture to be processed; R2: reactor composting for 2 days; R4: reactor composting for 4 days; R6: reactor composting for 6 days; R8: reactor composting for 8 days; R10: reactor composting for 10 days; C: continuous aeration; I: intermittent aeration. When the material germination index ≥70%, it is considered that the maturing stage is over. a-g above the bars are the overall significance analysis results. Different lowercase letters show significant differences at P < 0.05 level.

    图  5  不同反应器通气方式和堆肥时长下堆肥物料对水芹发芽指数的影响

    RM:待处理的混合物料; R2:反应器处理2 d; R4:反应器处理4 d; R6:反应器处理6 d; R8:反应器处理8 d; R10:反应器处理10 d; C:连续供气; I:间歇供气。图柱上方的数字为该处理物料发芽指数达70%所需陈化的时间。

    Figure  5.  Impact of composted materials on the germination index of cress with different aeration patterns and composting times of reactor

    RM: mixture to be processed; R2: reactor composting for 2 days; R4: reactor composting for 4 days; R6: reactor composting for 6 days; R8: reactor composting for 8 days; R10: reactor composting for 10 days; C: continuous aeration; I: intermittent aeration. The number on the bar is the maturing time when the germination index reaches 70%.

    图  6  反应器通气方式和堆肥时长对物料全氮含量的影响

    RM:待处理的混合物料; R2:反应器处理2 d; R4:反应器处理4 d; R6:反应器处理6 d; R8:反应器处理8 d; R10:反应器处理10 d; C:连续供气; I:间歇供气。当发芽指数≥70%时, 即认为陈化结束。a-f为图柱整体显著性分析结果, 不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P < 0.05).

    Figure  6.  Impact of aeration pattern and processing time of reactor on the total nitrogen content of composted materials during composting processing

    RM: mixture to be processed; R2: reactor composting for 2 days; R4: reactor composting for 4 days; R6: reactor composting for 6 days; R8: reactor composting for 8 days; R10: reactor composting for 10 days; C: continuous aeration; I: intermittent aeration. When the material germination index≥70%, it is considered that the maturing stage is over. a-f above the bars are the overall significance analysis results. Different lowercase letters show significant differences at P < 0.05 level.

    图  7  反应器通气方式和堆肥时长对物料氮素损失的影响

    R2:反应器处理2 d; R4:反应器处理4 d; R6:反应器处理6 d; R8:反应器处理8 d; R10:反应器处理10 d; C:连续供气; I:间歇供气。当发芽指数≥70%时, 即认为陈化结束。a-e为显著性分析结果, 不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。

    Figure  7.  Impact of aeration pattern and processing time of reactor on the nitrogen loss of composted materials during composting processing

    R2: reactor composting for 2 days; R4: reactor composting for 4 days; R6: reactor composting for 6 days; R8: reactor composting for 8 days; R10: reactor composting for 10 days; C: continuous aeration; I: intermittent aeration. When the material germination index≥70%, it is considered that the maturing stage is over. a-e above the bars are the overall significance analysis results. Different lowercase letters show significant differences at P < 0.05 level.

    表  1  堆肥原料的物理和化学性质(以干重计)

    Table  1.   Physical and chemical properties of compost raw materials (dry basis)

    堆肥原料
    Compost raw material
    pH 电导率
    Electrical conductivity (mS·cm-1)
    总有机碳
    Total organic carbon (g·kg-1)
    全氮
    Total nitrogen (g·kg-1)
    碳/氮
    C/N
    水分含量
    Moisture content (%)
    鸡粪 Chicken manure 8.72±0.12 5.32±0.24 227.43±0.52 27.82±0.72 8.18±0.23 76.42±0.36
    锯末 Sawdust 7.25±0.09 1.30±0.33 520.34±0.13 3.02±0.14 172.30±2.35 24.30±0.31
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  反应器处理时长及供气方式对生产有机肥运行成本的影响

    Table  2.   Impact of aeration pattern and processing time of reactor on the operating cost of organic fertilizer production

    反应器堆肥阶段
    Reactor processing stage
    陈化阶段
    Maturing stage
    总处理时长
    Total processing time (d)
    有机肥产量
    Organic fertilizer output (t·d-1)
    处理成本
    Total cost of chicken manure (¥·t-1)
    运营成本
    Operating cost for organic fertilizer production (¥·t-1)
    通气方式
    Ventilation method
    时长
    Composting time (d)
    处理量
    Processing capacity (t·d-1)
    运行成本
    Operating cost (¥·t-1)
    时间
    Time (d; GI≥70%)
    成本
    Cost (¥)
    间歇供气Intermittent aeration 2 5.4 33.10 > 21 200 > 23
    4 2.7 41.30 > 21 200 > 25
    6 1.8 49.50 21 200 27 1.3 138.6 191.9
    8 1.4 57.70 21 200 29 1.0 184.1 257.7
    10 1.1 65.90 18 150 28 0.8 196.2 269.8
    连续供气Continuous aeration 2 5.4 35.20 > 21 200 > 23
    4 2.7 45.40 21 200 25 1.9 90.9 129.2
    6 1.8 55.60 18 150 24 1.3 114.3 158.2
    8 1.4 65.80 12 150 20 1.0 154.3 216.0
    10 1.1 76.00 9 100 19 0.8 160.2 220.3
      GI:发芽指数。由于不同堆肥反应器的型号不同, 各耗电系统电机功率略有差距, 不同处理间经济成本的差值可能由于电机功率的加大而增大。GI: germination indexs. Due to the different types of compost reactors, the motor power of each power consumption system is slightly different. The difference in economic cost between different treatments shown in the experiment may increase due to the increase in motor power.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-05-06
  • 录用日期:  2020-07-01
  • 刊出日期:  2020-12-01

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