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化学农药减量化措施对水稻病虫草害发生及产量的影响

易军 符慧娟 李星月 朱从桦 李其勇 张鸿

易军, 符慧娟, 李星月, 朱从桦, 李其勇, 张鸿. 化学农药减量化措施对水稻病虫草害发生及产量的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(12): 1913-1923. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200297
引用本文: 易军, 符慧娟, 李星月, 朱从桦, 李其勇, 张鸿. 化学农药减量化措施对水稻病虫草害发生及产量的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(12): 1913-1923. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200297
YI Jun, FU Huijuan, LI Xingyue, ZHU Conghua, LI Qiyong, ZHANG Hong. The effects of chemical pesticide reduction on the occurrence of diseases, pests, weeds and rice yield[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(12): 1913-1923. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200297
Citation: YI Jun, FU Huijuan, LI Xingyue, ZHU Conghua, LI Qiyong, ZHANG Hong. The effects of chemical pesticide reduction on the occurrence of diseases, pests, weeds and rice yield[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(12): 1913-1923. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200297

化学农药减量化措施对水稻病虫草害发生及产量的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200297
基金项目: 

四川省财政创新能力提升工程专项 2016GYSH-013

公益性行业(农业)科研专项经费 201503127

四川省农业科学院前沿学科研究基金 2019QYXK027

成都市科技计划项目 019-GH02-00083-HZ

详细信息
    作者简介:

    易军, 主要从事水稻栽培生理研究。E-mail:donnyj123@163.com

    通讯作者:

    张鸿, 主要从事作物栽培与绿色生产技术研究。E-mail:zhh503@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S471

The effects of chemical pesticide reduction on the occurrence of diseases, pests, weeds and rice yield

Funds: 

the Special Fund for Financial Innovation Ability Promotion of Sichuan Province 2016GYSH-013

the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China 201503127

the Research Fund for Frontier Subjects of Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences 2019QYXK027

the Science and Technology Program of Chengdu 019-GH02-00083-HZ

More Information
  • 摘要: 为研究化学农药减量下不同栽培管理措施对水稻田间病虫草害发生及水稻干物质生产及产量的影响,进一步明确减少化学农药施用与水稻产量的关系,采用裂区试验设计,主区因素为2种杂草防治方式[浅旋耕作+常规除草剂用量(浅耕)、深耕耕作+减少30%除草剂用量(深耕)],副区因素为2种病虫防治方式[常规病虫害药剂用量(常规防治)、植物激活蛋白+减少30%病虫害药剂用量(喷施激活蛋白)],副副区因素为秧苗处理方式(未带药移栽、带药移栽),分析测定了田间病虫草害发生、水稻干物质积累与转运、产量及构成因素等指标。结果表明:深耕下,分蘖期和灌浆期田间杂草株数和鲜重较浅耕显著降低,螟虫引起的植株白穗率也明显较浅耕低。浅耕方式下水稻植株带药移栽或喷施激活蛋白后叶瘟病发生情况明显降低。在水稻干物质生产方面,病虫防治方式和杂草防治方式显著或极显著影响茎鞘干物质积累,且显著或极显著影响茎鞘干物质输出量、输出率和转化率;杂草方式、秧苗处理和病虫防治3种方式的互作显著影响茎鞘干物质输出率和转化率;喷施激活蛋白后,齐穗期水稻植株的茎鞘干物质量增加4.0%~19.4%;深耕下,成熟期水稻植株的茎鞘干物质量平均增加7.1%,但在齐穗至成熟阶段的茎鞘干物质输出和转化相对较小。相关性分析表明水稻产量与分蘖期和灌浆期杂草发生情况和叶瘟发生呈显著或极显著负相关。此外,在深耕、带药移栽或喷施植物激活蛋白方式下,减少30%的病虫草害药剂用量后水稻产量没有显著变化。表明通过深耕、带药移栽或喷施植物激活蛋白等病虫草害防治方式,能有效减少水稻的化学农药用量,实现水稻稳产增效。
  • 图  1  不同防治方式下稻田病虫害发生情况

    T1-T8处理描述见表 1。不同小写字母表示在同一病虫害指标下不同防治方式处理间在P < 0.05水平差异显著。

    Figure  1.  Occurrence of pest and disease in the rice field under different control methods

    The meanings of T1-T8 are shown in the table 1. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 level among different control methods for the same index of disease or pest.

    表  1  不同处理病虫草害防治栽培管理方式

    Table  1.   Control methods of disease, pest and weed in rice field of different treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    杂草防治方式
    Weed control (W)
    病虫害防治方式
    Disease and pest control (D)
    秧苗处理
    Seedling treatment (S)
    T1(W1D1S1) 浅旋+常规除草剂用量
    Shallow rotary tillage with conventional amount of herbicides (W1)
    常规防治病虫药剂用量
    Conventional amounts of insecticides and fungicides (D1)
    未带药移栽
    Transplanting without pesticides (S1)
    T2(W1D1S2) 浅旋+常规除草剂用量
    Shallow rotary tillage with conventional amount of herbicides (W1)
    常规防治病虫药剂用量
    Conventional amounts of insecticides and fungicides (D1)
    带药移栽
    Transplanting with
    pesticides (S2)
    T3(W1D2S1) 浅旋+常规除草剂用量
    Shallow rotary tillage with conventional amount of herbicides (W1)
    70%常规防治病虫药剂用量+激活蛋白
    Plant activator protein application with 30% reduction of insecticides and fungicides (D2)
    未带药移栽
    Transplanting without pesticides (S1)
    T4(W1D2S2) 浅旋+常规除草剂用量
    Shallow rotary tillage with conventional amount of herbicides (W1)
    70%常规防治病虫药剂用量+激活蛋白
    Plant activator protein application with 30% reduction of insecticides and fungicides (D2)
    带药移栽
    Transplanting with
    pesticides (S2)
    T5(W2D1S1) 深耕+70%常规除草剂用量
    Deep tillage with 30% reduction of herbicides (W2)
    常规防治病虫药剂用量
    Conventional amounts of insecticides and fungicides (D1)
    未带药移栽
    Transplanting without pesticides (S1)
    T6(W2D1S2) 深耕+70%常规除草剂用量
    Deep tillage with 30% reduction of herbicides (W2)
    常规防治病虫药剂用量
    Conventional amounts of insecticides and fungicides (D1)
    带药移栽
    Transplanting with
    pesticides (S2)
    T7(W2D2S1) 深耕+70%常规除草剂用量
    Deep tillage with 30% reduction of herbicides (W2)
    70%常规防治病虫药剂用量+激活蛋白
    Plant activator protein application with 30% reduction of insecticides and fungicides (D2)
    未带药移栽
    Transplanting without pesticides (S1)
    T8(W2D2S2) 深耕+70%常规除草剂用量
    Deep tillage with 30% reduction of herbicides (W2)
    70%常规防治病虫药剂用量+激活蛋白
    Plant activator protein application with 30% reduction of insecticides and fungicides (D2)
    带药移栽
    Transplanting with
    pesticides (S2)
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同防治方式对田间杂草株数和鲜重的影响

    Table  2.   Effects of different control methods on plant number and fresh weight of weeds in rice field

    时期
    Stage
    处理
    Treatment
    杂草株数Weed number (plants·m-2) 杂草鲜重Weed fresh weight (g·m-2)
    莎草科
    Cyperaceae
    阔叶
    Broadleaf
    禾本科
    Gramineae
    莎草科
    Cyperaceae
    阔叶
    Broadleaf
    禾本科
    Gramineae
    分蘖期
    Tillering stage
    T1 38.4±8.5a 66.6±11.5a 14.9±3.8ab 51.5±11.2a 31.6±4.6ab 14.5±1.7a
    T2 19.6±3.7ab 64.4±12.5a 18.1±3.9a 25.3±4.1bc 47.1±7.8a 12.5±3.5ab
    T3 13.0±3.8b 46.4±11.0ab 8.0±2.0bc 16.2±3.5bc 27.5±4.1abc 6.1±1.4bc
    T4 12.6±2.1b 39.9±9.5ab 8.7±2.2abc 28.9±5.5ab 19.2±3.2bcd 4.9±1.1bc
    T5 5.8±1.8b 12.5±3.5b 0.0±0.0c 2.3±1.6c 2.2±0.3d 0.0±0.0c
    T6 5.2±1.2b 10.3±1.9b 0.0±0.0c 3.2±2.6c 2.1±0.3d 0.0±0.0c
    T7 6.4±1.0b 24.8±3.9b 0.9±0.1c 6.2±1.3bc 6.1±2.0cd 0.4±0.1c
    T8 8.0±2.0b 23.5±2.6b 0.9±0.2c 6.4±1.7bc 7.1±0.1cd 0.2±0.0c
    F
    F value
    杂草防治
    Weed control (W)
    15.4* 16.7* 25.3** 22.5** 22.8** 23.3**
    病虫防治
    Disease and pest control (D)
    3.8 0.3 2.3 1.2 1.0 3.9
    秧苗处理
    Seedling treatment (S)
    1.5 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2
    W×D 5.8* 3.8 3.6 3.1 3.3 4.6*
    W×S 1.9 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.1
    D×S 1.9 0.0 0.1 3.0 1.0 0.0
    W×D×S 1.2 0.0 0.1 3.3 1.2 0.0
    灌浆期
    Grain- filling stage
    T1 10.2±2.1ab 11.1±1.8a 0.0 308.3±45.5abc 149.5±13.4 a 0.0
    T2 12.9±0.8a 10.2±1.7ab 0.0 569.2±73.0ab 110.8±10.1 a 0.0
    T3 7.6±1.6ab 11.1±1.9a 0.0 635.3±85.8a 79.9±16.8 b 0.0
    T4 7.1±1.8ab 8.9±1.8ab 0.0 421.7±58.8abc 67.2±7.2 b 0.0
    T5 3.1±1.5b 1.3±0.3b 0.0 99.2±21.6c 0.6±0.0 c 0.0
    T6 2.7±0.3b 2.7±0.3b 0.0 64.3±15.0c 4.2±0.7 c 0.0
    T7 5.3±1.0ab 4.0±1.0ab 0.0 149.7±27.1abc 1.8±0.2 c 0.0
    T8 4.4±1.3ab 6.2±0.8ab 0.0 177.5±18.1abc 8.2±1.5 c 0.0
    F
    F value
    杂草防治
    Weed control (W)
    5.3* 4.9* 10.8** 6.1*
    病虫防治
    Disease and pest control (D)
    0.2 0.2 0.6 0.5
    秧苗处理
    Seedling treatment (S)
    0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
    W×D 1.7 0.4 0.0 0.6
    W×S 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.1
    D×S 0.1 0.0 0.9 0.0
    W×D×S 0.1 0.0 1.5 0.0
    T1-T8处理描述见表 1。同列不同小写字母表示同一生育期不同防治方式处理间在P < 0.05水平差异显著。*和**分别表示在P < 0.05和P < 0.01水平差异显著。The meanings of T1-T8 are shown in the table 1. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 level among different control methods at the same growth stage. * and ** mean significant differences at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同防治方式对水稻干物质积累的影响

    Table  3.   Effects of different control methods on dry matter accumulation of rice  t·hm-2

    处理
    Treatment
    齐穗期Full heading stage 成熟期Maturity stage

    Leaf
    茎鞘
    Stem-sheath

    Panicle

    Leaf
    茎鞘
    Stem-sheath

    Panicle
    T1 2.38±0.23a 7.20±0.65ab 2.27±0.39a 1.29± 0.14a 4.50±0.11ab 8.99±0.16a
    T2 2.06±0.42a 6.50±0.93b 2.30±0.76a 1.28±0.24a 4.12±0.45b 8.67±0.67a
    T3 2.29±0.43a 8.59±1.82a 2.23±0.35a 1.36±0.14a 4.44±0.24ab 8.40±1.24a
    T4 2.25±0.34a 6.92±0.21ab 2.78±0.99a 1.26±0.03a 4.45±0.74ab 8.28±0.98a
    T5 2.45±0.43a 6.73±1.32ab 2.70±0.82a 1.42±0.20a 4.66±0.53ab 9.01±0.78a
    T6 2.14±0.22a 6.35±0.86b 2.01±0.46a 1.34±0.29a 4.96±0.14a 8.38±0.65a
    T7 2.18±0.49a 6.99±1.04ab 2.22±0.93a 1.33±0.13a 4.68±0.40ab 8.65±0.11a
    T8 2.43±0.06a 7.47±0.46ab 1.90±0.28a 1.28±0.14a 4.40±0.46ab 7.91±0.21a
    F
    F value
    杂草防治
    Weed control (W)
    0.4 1.4 0.7 0.2 219.5** 0.2
    病虫防治
    Disease and pest control (D)
    0.2 9.5* 0.0 0.1 0.2 2.2
    秧苗处理
    Seedling treatment (S)
    0.6 2.2 0.1 1.1 0.2 2.1
    W×D 0.1 0.2 1.7 0.3 1.7 0.0
    W×S 0.3 2.6 2.0 0.0 0.2 0.5
    D×S 2.4 0.0 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.0
    W×D×S 0.3 1.4 0.0 0.2 1.4 0.1
    T1-T8处理描述见表 1。同列不同小写字母表示不同防治方式处理间在P < 0.05水平差异显著。*和**分别表示在P < 0.05和P < 0.01水平差异显著。The meanings of T1-T8 are shown in the table 1. Different lowercases letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 level among different control methods. * and ** mean significant differences at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同防治方式对水稻叶和茎鞘干物质输出和转化的影响

    Table  4.   Effects of different control methods on dry matter exportation and transformation of rice leaf and stem-sheath

    处理
    Treatment
    叶Leaf 茎鞘Stem-sheath
    输出量
    Exportation amount (t·hm-2)
    输出率
    Exportation rate (%)
    转化率
    Transformation rate (%)
    输出量
    Exportation amount (t·hm-2)
    输出率
    Exportation rate (%)
    转化率
    Transformation rate (%)
    T1 1.1±0.1a 45.7±3.2a 16.2±2.4a 2.7±0.5b 37.2±4.1ab 40.4±9.6bc
    T2 0.8±0.3a 37.5±6.7a 12.2±3.6a 2.4±0.5bc 36.4±3.0ab 37.4±7.7bc
    T3 0.9±0.3a 39.8±6.3a 14.9±3.7a 4.2±1.6a 47.2±8.5a 65.9±16.9a
    T4 1.0±0.3a 43.3±7.2a 18.3±3.0a 2.5±0.6bc 35.9±6.3ab 45.7±13.7b
    T5 1.0±0.2a 41.9±2.4a 16.4±4.0a 2.1±0.8bc 29.9±4.8bc 32.7±12.8bc
    T6 0.8±0.1a 38.1±8.2a 12.8±2.5a 1.4±0.8c 21.0±3.5c 21.6±5.6c
    T7 0.8±0.4a 37.6±8.9a 13.8±3.1a 2.3±0.6bc 32.6±4.6bc 37.1±4.6bc
    T8 1.2±0.2a 47.3±7.3a 19.2±3.6a 3.1±0.3ab 41.1±4.5ab 51.0±5.3ab
    F
    F value
    杂草防治
    Weed control (W)
    0.2 0.1 0.0 249.3** 20.8* 21.5*
    病虫防治
    Disease and pest control (D)
    0.2 0.1 1.2 22.9** 11.3* 30.2**
    秧苗处理
    Seedling treatment (S)
    0.3 0.0 0.0 2.2 1.3 1.3
    W×D 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 2.0 0.0
    W×S 1.1 1.5 0.2 2.5 1.1 2.2
    D×S 8.8* 8.8* 7.8* 0.0 0.4 0.2
    W×D×S 0.3 0.1 0.1 4.6 6.1* 5.7*
    T1-T8处理描述见表 1。同列不同小写字母表示不同防治方式处理间在P < 0.05水平差异显著。*和**分别表示在P < 0.05和P < 0.01水平差异显著。The meanings of T1-T8 are shown in the table 1. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 level among different control methods. * and ** mean significant differences at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同防治方式对水稻产量和产量构成的影响

    Table  5.   Effects of different control methods on yield and yield components of rice

    处理
    Treatment
    有效穗数
    No. of effective panicle (×104·hm-2)
    每穗粒数
    No. of grains per panicle
    结实率
    Seed-setting rate (%)
    千粒重
    1000-grain weight (g)
    产量
    Yield (t·hm-2)
    T1 243.8±28.2abc 162.5±10.9a 79.5±4.4a 29.1±0.4a 8.8±0.8a
    T2 234.9±16.6c 156.8±11.4 b 80.3±3.2a 29.2±0.2a 8.6±1.3a
    T3 235.5±33.5c 157.8±7.6ab 81.8±3.3a 29.1±0.3a 8.9±0.7a
    T4 237.3±21.6bc 154.4±8.1ab 81.9±5.6a 29.3±0.3a 9.0±0.5a
    T5 256.2±21.2ab 160.2±10.9ab 81.2±4.7a 29.2±0.2a 9.6±0.6a
    T6 263.9±16.8a 159.9±9.6ab 79.2±4.6a 29.1±0.3a 9.4±0.8a
    T7 236.4±28.6bc 150.1±20.5b 82.6±3.5a 29.3±0.3a 9.4±0.9a
    T8 231.8±26.4c 162.0±9.8a 80.6±3.2a 29.2±0.2a 9.5±1.0a
    F
    F value
    杂草防治
    Weed control (W)
    7.3* 0.0 0.0 0.3 5.8
    病虫防治
    Disease and pest control (D)
    3.5 1.7 2.8 1.4 0.3
    秧苗处理
    Seedling treatment (S)
    0.1 0.1 0.7 0.2 0.2
    W×D 4.7* 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.6
    W×S 0.4 4.3* 1.9 2.9 0.0
    D×S 0.0 2.2 0.1 0.3 2.3
    W×D×S 1.9 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.1
    T1-T8处理描述见表 1。同列不同小写字母表示不同防治方式处理间在P < 0.05水平差异显著。*和**分别表示在P < 0.05和P < 0.01水平差异显著。The meanings of T1-T8 are shown in the table 1. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 level among different control methods. * and ** mean significant differences at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  稻田病虫草害发生与水稻产量和产量构成因素的相关性

    Table  6.   Correlation between occurrence of diseases, pests, weeds and yield and yield components of rice

    时期
    Stage
    指标
    Index
    有效穗数
    Effective panicle number
    每穗粒数
    Grains number per panicle
    结实率
    Seed-setting
    rate
    千粒重
    1000-grain weight
    产量
    Yield
    分蘖期
    Tillering
    杂草株数
    Weed number
    莎草科Cyperaceae -0.45 0.12 -0.07 -0.19 -0.86**
    阔叶Broadleaf -0.38 -0.02 0.02 -0.12 -0.91**
    禾本科Gramineae -0.46 -0.13 -0.02 -0.07 -0.92**
    杂草鲜重
    Weed fresh weight
    莎草科Cyperaceae -0.31 0.02 -0.05 -0.14 -0.81*
    阔叶Broadleaf -0.55 0.00 -0.05 -0.14 -0.88**
    禾本科Gramineae -0.37 -0.04 -0.02 -0.18 -0.93**
    叶瘟病
    Leaf blast
    发病率Incidence -0.24 -0.05 0.14 -0.10 -0.81*
    病情指数Disease index -0.21 -0.02 0.12 -0.12 -0.83*
    灌浆期
    Grain-filling
    杂草株数
    Weed number
    莎草科Cyperaceae -0.48 -0.14 0.05 -0.07 -0.93**
    阔叶Broadleaf -0.44 0.07 -0.05 -0.32 -0.85**
    禾本科Gramineae
    杂草鲜重
    Weed fresh weight
    莎草科Cyperaceae -0.62 -0.21 0.24 -0.02 -0.76*
    阔叶Broadleaf -0.33 0.19 -0.33 -0.48 -0.88**
    禾本科Gramineae
    黄熟期
    Yellow ripening
    颈瘟病
    Panicle blast
    发病率Incidence -0.05 -0.69 0.48 0.26 -0.19
    病情指数Disease index 0.14 -0.69 -0.71* 0.36 -0.02
    稻曲病
    Rice false smut
    病穗率Diseased panicle rate -0.43 -0.29 -0.79* 0.74* 0.24
    病粒率Diseased grain rate -0.17 -0.45 -0.81* 0.71* 0.40
    整白穗率Whole white panicle rate 0.22 0.12 -0.39 -0.32 -0.51
    部分白穗率Partial white panicle rate 0.32 0.18 0.09 0.32 0.75*
    *和**分别表示在P < 0.05和P < 0.01水平显著相关。* and ** mean significant correlation at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels, respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-04-20
  • 录用日期:  2020-08-13
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