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两种生物质炭对酸性紫色土腐殖质组成的影响

赵海岚 李冰 王昌全 龙思帆 李斌 鲜顺志 曾林浩 肖美娟 刘奇鑫

赵海岚, 李冰, 王昌全, 龙思帆, 李斌, 鲜顺志, 曾林浩, 肖美娟, 刘奇鑫. 两种生物质炭对酸性紫色土腐殖质组成的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(12): 1949-1957. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200277
引用本文: 赵海岚, 李冰, 王昌全, 龙思帆, 李斌, 鲜顺志, 曾林浩, 肖美娟, 刘奇鑫. 两种生物质炭对酸性紫色土腐殖质组成的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(12): 1949-1957. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200277
ZHAO Hailan, LI Bing, WANG Changquan, LONG Sifan, LI Bin, XIAN Shunzhi, ZENG Linhao, XIAO Meijuan, LIU Qixin. The effects of biochars on humus composition in acidic purplish soil[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(12): 1949-1957. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200277
Citation: ZHAO Hailan, LI Bing, WANG Changquan, LONG Sifan, LI Bin, XIAN Shunzhi, ZENG Linhao, XIAO Meijuan, LIU Qixin. The effects of biochars on humus composition in acidic purplish soil[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(12): 1949-1957. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200277

两种生物质炭对酸性紫色土腐殖质组成的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200277
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2018YFD0200704

四川省科技厅应用基础重大前沿项目 2018JY0002

四川省烟草公司重点科技项目 SCYC201705

四川省烟草公司重点科技项目 SCYC201803

详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵海岚, 主要研究方向为生物质炭环境效应。E-mail:zhlwills@163.com

    通讯作者:

    李冰, 主要研究方向为土壤元素迁移转化与生物有效性。E-mail:benglee@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S156.2

The effects of biochars on humus composition in acidic purplish soil

Funds: 

the National Key Research and Development Program of China 2018YFD0200704

the Applied Basic Research Programs of Sichuan Science and Technology Department 2018JY0002

the Key Program of Sichuan Provincial Company of China National Tobacco Corporation SCYC201705

the Key Program of Sichuan Provincial Company of China National Tobacco Corporation SCYC201803

More Information
  • 摘要: 生物质炭的性状与原料中木质纤维含量密切相关,为探明不同原料生物质炭对土壤腐殖质组成的影响,选取玉米秸秆和紫茎泽兰分别作为纤维类和木质类原材料制备生物质炭,向酸性紫色土分别添加5%玉米秸秆生物质炭(MB)和5%紫茎泽兰生物质炭(EB),测定90 d室内培养期间土壤胡敏酸(HA)、富里酸(FA)、胡敏素(HM)含量以及HA光学性质和元素组成变化。结果表明:MB和EB的比表面积分别为2.32 m2·g-1和0.72 m2·g-1,总孔体积分别为42.71 mm3·g-1和12.59 mm3·g-1,碳与氢元素摩尔比(C/H)分别为1.91和1.46,氧、硫之和与碳元素摩尔比[(O+S)/C]分别为0.09和0.16,玉米秸秆生物质炭的吸附能力更强、有机质成分的缩合度更大且氧化度更小。与对照(不添加生物质炭,CK)相比,培养结束后,施入生物质炭的土壤HA、FA和HM含量分别显著增加(P < 0.05)65.59%~102.82%、85.87%~118.54%和137.25%~161.23%,MB处理对这3种腐殖质含量的增加效应较EB处理更明显。培养结束时添加生物质炭的土壤HA/土壤有机碳(SOC)降低13.53%~27.06%,FA/SOC降低6.81%~18.03%,其中EB处理的降低效应达显著水平;HM/SOC则增加4.58%~11.40%,其中MB处理的增加效应达显著水平。添加生物质炭的土壤HA色调系数(ΔlgK)增加2.40%~5.60%,HA的缩合度(C/H)降低3.51%~11.81%,(O+S)/C增加1.51%~8.74%。总体来看,施入生物质炭均能相对增加腐殖质各组分含量,降低C/H,提高HA的氧化度[(O+S)/C],且纤维类原料(玉米秸秆)生物质炭的效果更明显。纤维类原料(玉米秸秆)生物质炭显著提高了稳定性较高的土壤胡敏素碳比例(HM/SOC),但降低了土壤HA的稳定性[HA的C/H降低,(O+S)/C增加];木质类原料(紫茎泽兰)生物质炭显著降低土壤胡敏酸碳比例(HA/SOC)和富里酸碳比例(FA/SOC),对HM/SOC增加效益不显著,反之提高了土壤易分解有机碳比例。
  • 图  1  玉米秸秆生物质炭(a)和紫茎泽兰生物质炭(b)的电镜扫描图

    Figure  1.  Electron microscopies of maize straw biochar (a) and Eupatorium adeophorum biochar (b)

    图  2  玉米秸秆生物质炭和紫茎泽兰生物质炭对土壤胡敏酸(HA)、富里酸(FA)、胡敏素(HM)含量和HA/FA的影响

    CK:不添加生物质炭; MB:添加玉米秸秆生物质炭; EB:添加紫茎泽兰生物质炭。

    Figure  2.  Effects of maize straw biochar and Eupatorium adeophorum biochar application on soil humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA), humin (HM) contents and HA/FA values

    CK: no biochar application; MB: maize straw biochar application; EB: Eupatorium adeophorum biochar application.

    图  3  玉米秸秆生物质炭和紫茎泽兰生物质炭对土壤胡敏酸色调系数(ΔlgK)的影响

    CK:不添加生物质炭; MB:添加玉米秸秆生物质炭; EB:添加紫茎泽兰生物质炭。

    Figure  3.  Effects of maize straw biochar and Eupatorium adeophorum biochar application on the color tonal coefficient (ΔlgK) of soil humic acid

    CK: no application; MB: maize straw biochar application; EB: Eupatorium adeophorum biochar application.

    表  1  供试两种生物质炭的基本理化性质

    Table  1.   Basic physical and chemical properties of biochars

    生物质炭类型
    Biochar type
    产率
    Productive rate (%)
    灰分
    Ash content (%)
    pH 阳离子交换量
    CEC (cmol·kg-1)
    C (%) 碱提取酸不溶物
    Acid-insoluble fraction of alkaline extract (%)
    碱提取酸溶物
    Acid-soluble fraction of alkaline extract (%)
    碱提取残渣
    Residues of alkaline extract (%)
    玉米秸秆生物质炭
    Maize straw biochar
    46.27 36.27 10.30 128.25 58.00 4.39 5.78 20.99
    紫茎泽兰生物质炭
    Eupatorium adeophorum biochar
    52.44 43.54 9.82 96.22 55.85 3.10 3.62 16.84
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  玉米秸秆生物质炭和紫茎泽兰生物质炭的比表面积、总孔体积及元素摩尔比

    Table  2.   Specific surface area, total pore volume and molar ratio of chemical elements of maize straw biochar and Eupatorium adeophorum biochar

    生物质炭类型
    Biochar type
    比表面积
    Specific surface area (m2·g-1)
    总孔体积
    Total pore volume (mm3·g-1)
    元素摩尔比
    Molar ratio
    C/H (O+S)/C
    玉米秸秆生物质炭
    Maize straw biochar
    2.32 42.71 1.91 0.09
    紫茎泽兰生物质炭
    Eupatorium adeophorum biochar
    0.72 12.59 1.46 0.16
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  玉米秸秆生物质炭和紫茎泽兰生物质炭对土壤腐殖质组分相对含量的影响

    Table  3.   Effects of maize straw biochar and Eupatorium adeophorum biochar application on relative contents of soil humus composition  %

    腐殖质组分
    Humus composition
    处理
    Treatment
    培养时间
    Incubation time (d)
    1 3 5 7 15 30 60 90
    胡敏酸
    Humic acid
    CK 17.69±0.54a 17.76±0.66a 18.47±0.90a 20.07±0.71a 22.09±0.88a 19.75±0.71a 20.10±0.95a 19.44±0.82a
    MB 14.50±0.40b 14.45±0.45b 15.18±0.50b 15.74±0.46b 18.03±0.62b 17.43±0.49b 16.63±0.66b 16.81±0.50b
    EB 12.46±0.58c 12.28±0.46c 13.14±0.37c 13.85±0.59c 15.95±0.56c 15.27±0.65c 14.25±0.69c 14.18±0.57c
    富里酸
    Fulvic acid
    CK 10.47±0.41a 11.50±0.51a 12.22±0.38a 13.96±0.35a 14.01±0.49a 11.19±0.56a 10.64±0.38a 9.54±0.33a
    MB 9.67±0.26a 10.01±0.25b 10.75±0.37b 11.28±0.54b 10.31±0.48b 9.69±0.28b 9.12±0.37b 8.89±0.30a
    EB 8.45±0.39b 8.76±0.24c 9.72±0.29b 10.43±0.33c 9.49±0.44c 8.88±0.31b 7.92±0.29c 7.82±0.38b
    胡敏素
    Humin
    CK 37.03±1.79a 37.02±1.08a 36.81±1.75a 36.45±1.13a 33.74±1.21a 34.25±1.28a 35.67±1.30a 38.24±1.80a
    MB 40.70±1.12b 40.91±0.98b 40.93±0.90b 40.53±1.29b 39.00±0.78b 39.10±1.16b 40.90±1.06b 42.60±1.31b
    EB 37.19±0.95a 37.42±1.60a 37.43±0.85a 37.61±1.09c 36.74±1.08c 36.95±1.02b 38.32±1.18b 39.99±1.08ab
      CK:不添加生物质炭; MB:添加玉米秸秆生物质炭; EB:添加紫茎泽兰生物质炭。表中同列不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。CK: no biochar application; MB: maize straw biochar application; EB: Eupatorium adeophorum biochar application. Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences among different treatments (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  玉米秸秆生物质炭和紫茎泽兰生物质炭对土壤胡敏酸元素组成的影响

    Table  4.   Effects of maize straw biochar and Eupatorium adeophorum biochar application on elements composition of soil humic acid

    培养时间
    Incubation time (d)
    处理
    Treatment
    含量
    Content (%)
    元素摩尔比
    Molar ratio of elements
    C H O N S C/H (O+S)/C
    1 CK 48.86 4.23 37.94 3.51 5.46 0.96 0.62
    MB 57.70 4.79 29.21 3.87 4.43 1.00 0.41
    EB 58.35 4.56 27.58 3.48 6.03 1.07 0.39
    90 CK 54.64 4.30 34.02 3.41 3.63 1.06 0.47
    MB 52.06 4.65 34.50 3.54 5.26 0.93 0.50
    EB 53.72 4.38 34.32 3.36 4.22 1.02 0.48
      CK:不添加生物质炭; MB:添加玉米秸秆生物质炭; EB:添加紫茎泽兰生物质炭。CK: no application; MB: maize straw biochar application; EB: Eupatorium adeophorum biochar application.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2020-04-13
  • 录用日期:  2020-09-16
  • 刊出日期:  2020-12-01

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