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重金属污染农田安全利用:目标、可选技术与可推广技术

李小方

李小方. 重金属污染农田安全利用:目标、可选技术与可推广技术[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(6): 860-866. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200103
引用本文: 李小方. 重金属污染农田安全利用:目标、可选技术与可推广技术[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(6): 860-866. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200103
LI Xiaofang. Safe utilization of heavy metal-contaminated farmland: Goals, technical options, and extendable technology[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(6): 860-866. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200103
Citation: LI Xiaofang. Safe utilization of heavy metal-contaminated farmland: Goals, technical options, and extendable technology[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(6): 860-866. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200103

重金属污染农田安全利用:目标、可选技术与可推广技术

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.200103
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2018YFD0800306

河北省杰出青年基金项目 D2018503005

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李小方, 主要从事土壤重金属污染的修复和治理。E-mail:xfli@sjziam.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: S19

Safe utilization of heavy metal-contaminated farmland: Goals, technical options, and extendable technology

Funds: 

the National Key Research and Development Project of China 2018YFD0800306

the Outstanding Youth Found Project of Hebei Province D2018503005

More Information
  • 摘要: 当前,土壤重金属污染研究的主要任务之一是形成安全利用可推广技术方案。那么,当前科学界是否有能力提供这样一个方案?本文在分析土壤污染防控基本概念和决策树的基础上,系统解析了如下问题:污染农田安全利用的目标、技术选项、可推广技术标准和形态。我们认为污染农田安全利用有狭义和广义之分,以主粮区籽粒安全生产为目标的狭义安全利用技术研发是当务之急;安全利用技术的标准是农作物可食用部位的重金属含量达标,而不是土壤重金属钝化效果;重金属从根部到地上部的转运能力是作物筛选和改造的关注重点;低镉作物品种选育与推广有可能零成本地实现轻微镉污染农田安全利用,而钝化剂/土壤调理剂在优选以后将逐渐提高适合安全利用的农田镉污染上限;成本、效果和土壤生态效应是可推广安全利用技术的重要评价标准,可推广安全利用技术的形态受限于农业生产过程,需要以种子、肥料和农艺等形式交付使用者。这些系统分析,有利于安全利用技术研究从"百花齐放"向可推广技术转变,并最终服务于《土壤污染防治行动计划》污染农田安全利用目标。
  • 图  1  环境治理/修复领域常见术语的可能逻辑关系

    Figure  1.  Logical relationships of common terms about environment management or remediation

    图  2  中国土壤重金属污染治理的决策树(以分类分级为原则, 重点阐释了农田重金属污染的技术选项)

    Figure  2.  Decision tree for soil heavy metal (HM) pollution control with the techniques for farmland highlighted, based on the severity and scenario of soil pollution

    图  3  以生产安全农产品为目标的农田重金属阻控的3个基本环节[6]

    Figure  3.  Three boundaries for preventing soil heavy metals from entering the edible parts of crops[6]

    表  1  目前常用钝化剂/土壤调理剂的使用及效果

    Table  1.   Application and effects of common immobilizers/soil conditioners

    钝化剂/调理剂
    Immobilizers/ soil conditioner
    成本
    Cost (¥·t–1)
    土壤环境Soil environment 施用量
    Application rate
    效果Effect 文献
    Reference
    pH 有机质
    Organic matter (g·kg–1)
    全镉
    Total Cd (mg·kg–1)
    沸石
    Zeolite
    1 000 5.03 19.80 0.17 1%, 3%, 6% 100 mg·kg–1镉污染下, 添加6%沸石可使有效态镉下降28.28% Available Cd was reduced by 28.28% under 6% zeolite application rate. [8]
    高岭石+石灰石
    Kaolinite + limestone
    2 000 5.57 29.40 1.62
    (可溶态镉Soluble Cd 0.61)
    0, 2 250, 4 500, 9 000 kg·hm–2 施用9 000 kg·hm–2, 糙米镉由1.03 mg·kg–1降至0.54 mg·kg–1 Brown rice Cd was reduced to 0.54 mg·kg–1 from 1.03 mg·kg–1 under 9 000 kg·hm–2 kaolinite + limestone application rate. [9]
    膨润土
    Bentonite
    550~3 600 6.29 32.68 0.49 2%, 5% (w/w) 5%膨润土处理降低镉有效性29.4% Available Cd was reduced by 29.4% under 5% bentonite application. [10-11]
    生物炭
    Biochar
    1 200 6.29 32.68 0.49 2%, 5% (w/w) 5%生物碳处理降低镉有效性40% Available Cd was reduced by 40% under 5% biochar application. [10]
    硅钙镁矿物
    Si-Ca-Mg minerals
    900 5.22 0.75
    (有效态镉Available Cd 0.48)
    1 500, 2 250, 3 000 kg·hm–2 2 250 kg·hm-2时, 水稻糙米镉含量下降36.92%(> 0.39 mg·kg-1) Brown rice Cd was reduced by 36.92% under 2 250 kg·hm-2 Si-Ca-Mg minerals application rate. [12]
    5.40 0.38 1 500 kg·hm–2 显著降低水稻镉含量(至0.1 mg·kg-1左右) Rice Cd was significantly reduced to –0.1 mg·kg-1. [13]
    5.16 未知Unknown 4 500 kg·hm–2 糙米镉含量降低62.50% Brown rice Cd was reduced by 62.50%. [14]
    牡蛎壳
    Oyster shell
    5 000 5.16 0.46 3 000 kg·hm–2 糙米镉含量降低68.06% Brown rice Cd was reduced by 68.06%. [14]
    5 000 4.50 62.20 2.27 0.25%~2% (w/w) 2%添加时土壤可交换态镉降低98.3%, 小油菜镉含量降低83.9% Exchangeable Cd was reduced by 98.3% in soil, and Cd was reduced by 83.9% in oilseed rape under 2% oyster shell application rate. [15]
    白云石
    Dolomite
    350 效果与牡蛎壳非常接近Similar effect as oyster shell powder
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2020-02-19
  • 录用日期:  2020-03-27
  • 刊出日期:  2020-06-01

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