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基于全国耕地消纳的畜禽粪便特征分布与环境承载力预警分析

张藤丽 焉莉 韦大明

张藤丽, 焉莉, 韦大明. 基于全国耕地消纳的畜禽粪便特征分布与环境承载力预警分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(5): 745-755. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190853
引用本文: 张藤丽, 焉莉, 韦大明. 基于全国耕地消纳的畜禽粪便特征分布与环境承载力预警分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2020, 28(5): 745-755. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190853
ZHANG Tengli, YAN Li, WEI Daming. Characteristic distribution of livestock manure and warning analysis of environmental carrying capacity based on the consumption of cultivated land in China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(5): 745-755. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190853
Citation: ZHANG Tengli, YAN Li, WEI Daming. Characteristic distribution of livestock manure and warning analysis of environmental carrying capacity based on the consumption of cultivated land in China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2020, 28(5): 745-755. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190853

基于全国耕地消纳的畜禽粪便特征分布与环境承载力预警分析

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190853
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2018YFD0800100

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张藤丽, 主要研究方向为农业面源污染。E-mail:15754368647@163.com

    通讯作者:

    焉莉, 主要从事农业环境管理与农业面源污染研究, E-mail:yanlijau@163.com

    韦大明, 主要从事污染物总量控制和管理研究, E-mail:lunwen201906@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S8-1

Characteristic distribution of livestock manure and warning analysis of environmental carrying capacity based on the consumption of cultivated land in China

Funds: 

the National Key Research and Development Project of China 2018YFD0800100

More Information
  • 摘要: 为加快畜禽养殖行业粪污资源化利用,促进畜牧业可持续发展,及时掌握畜禽粪便的特征分布,对有效防控养殖区域环境的污染尤为重要。目前多数畜禽粪便污染研究都是基于省市区域尺度,而进行全国尺度的研究相对较少。本文运用排污系数法,以中国畜牧年鉴数据为计算基础,估算出2016年全国31个省份畜禽粪便的产生量、污染物产生量及污染物流失量。在此基础上,分析全国2016年畜禽粪便的排放分布特征,并将不同畜种的粪尿产生量统一换算为猪粪当量,计算出单位耕地面积猪粪当量承载负荷及预警值,参照相关标准得到2016年全国各省所对应的预警级别。结果表明:2016年全国畜禽粪便总产生量为246 836万t,其中牛粪产量最多,家禽粪产生量最少;所研究的31个省份中四川省、河南省、山东省的粪便产生量较多。假设产生的粪便可以利用当年的有效耕地消纳,则2016年31个省份畜禽粪便平均单位耕地面积猪粪当量承载力负荷为19.55,单位耕地面积猪粪当量预警均值为0.49。本文所测算的31个省份中大部分省份预警值处于无环境威胁预警级别(Ⅰ级),但北京市处于有环境威胁预警级别(Ⅲ级),西藏自治区处于很严重环境威胁预警级别(Ⅵ级),青海处于严重环境威胁预警级别(Ⅴ级)。根据计算得出的预警级别,各省应根据自身情况充分利用畜禽粪便资源,尤其是在预警值较高地区应及时做好畜禽养殖总量控制及污染防控。
  • 图  1  2016年中国31个省份(市、自治区)畜禽养殖数量

    Figure  1.  Livestock and poultry breeding number in 31 provinces (cities, autonomous regions) of China in 2016

    图  2  2016年中国31个省(市、自治区)畜禽粪便产生量

    Figure  2.  Livestock and poultry manure production in 31 provinces (cities, autonomous regions) of China in 2016

    图  3  2016年中国31省(市、自治区)畜禽粪尿污染物产生量(a)和流失量(b)

    Figure  3.  Production (a) and loss (b) of pollutants of livestock and poultry manure in 31 provinces (cities, autonomous regions) of China in 2016

    表  1  不同种类畜禽粪便日排放系数及污染物参数[16]

    Table  1.   Daily pollutant discharge coefficients and pollutants parameters of different species of livestock and poultry[16]

    污染物
    Pollutant
    牛粪
    Cow dung
    牛尿
    Cow urine
    猪粪
    Pig manure
    猪尿
    Pig urine
    羊粪
    Sheep manure
    家禽粪
    Poultry dung
    排放系数Excretion coefficient (kg∙d–1) 20.00 10.00 2.00 3.30 2.60
    化学需氧量Chemical oxygen demand (kg∙t–1) 31.00 6.00 52.00 9.00 4.63 45.65
    总氮Total nitrogen (kg∙t–1) 4.37 8.00 5.88 3.30 7.50 10.42
    总磷Total phosphorus (kg∙t–1) 1.18 0.40 3.41 0.52 2.60 5.79
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  畜禽粪便污染物进入水体的流失率[16]

    Table  2.   Loss rates of manure pollutants of livestock and poultry entering water bodies[16]  %

    污染物
    Pollutant
    牛粪
    Cow dung
    牛尿
    Cow urine
    猪粪
    Pig manure
    猪尿
    Pig urine
    羊粪
    Sheep manure
    化学需氧量Chemical oxygen demand 6.16 5.58 5.50 8.59 50.00
    总氮Total nitrogen 5.68 5.34 5.30 8.47 50.00
    总磷Total phosphorus 5.50 5.25 5.20 8.42 50.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  各类畜禽粪便的猪当量系数[16]

    Table  3.   Equivalent coefficient of manure of various livestock and poultry[16]

    指标
    Index
    牛粪
    Cow dung
    牛尿
    Cow urine
    猪粪
    Pig manure
    猪尿
    Pig urine
    羊粪
    Sheep manure
    家禽粪
    Poultry dung
    氮百分含量Percentage of nitrogen (%) 0.45 0.80 0.65 0.33 0.80 1.37
    换算系数Conversion factor 0.69 1.23 1.00 0.57 1.23 2.10
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  畜禽粪便污染物负荷警报分级[23]

    Table  4.   Warning classification of livestock and poultry pollutant load[23]

    警报值Alarm value <0.4 0.4~0.7 0.7~1.0 1.0~1.5 1.5~2.5 > 2.5
    级别Grade
    对环境的威胁性
    Threat to environment

    None
    稍有
    Not obvious

    Obvious
    较严重
    Serious
    严重
    More serious
    很严重
    Extremely serious
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  2016年中国31个省(市、自治区)畜禽粪便中主要污染物总含量及流失量

    Table  5.   Total contents and loss amounts of major pollutants in livestock and poultry manure of 31 provinces (cities or autonomousregions) of China in 2016  ×104 t

    指标
    Index
    化学需氧量Chemical oxygen demand 总氮Total nitrogen 总磷Total phosphorus
    含量Content 流失量Loss 含量Content 流失量Loss 含量Content 流失量Loss
    猪粪Pig manure 1 418 79 160 9 93 5
    猪尿Pig urine 405 202 148 74 23 12
    牛粪Cow dung 2 346 145 331 19 89 5
    牛尿Cow urine 227 114 303 151 15 8
    羊粪Sheep manure 132 7 21 1 74 4
    家禽粪Poultry dung 1 483 127 338 29 188 16
    合计Total 6 011 674 1 302 283 483 49
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  中国31省(市、自治区)耕地消纳畜禽粪便负荷及预警

    Table  6.   Loads and early warning grade of livestock and poultry manure consumption of cultivated land in each province (city, autonomous region) of China

    地区
    Province
    耕地面积
    Arable land
    (hm2)
    畜禽粪便猪当量
    Pig manure equivalent
    (×104t)
    耕地畜禽粪便猪当量负荷
    Pig manure equivalent load of cultivated land of livestock and poultry manure (t∙hm–2∙a–1)
    耕地理论最大适宜污染物承载量
    Theory maximum suitable pollutant load of cultivated land
    (t∙hm2)
    单位面积耕地猪粪当量负荷警报值
    Load alarm value of pig manure equivalent per unit area of arable land
    单位面积耕地猪粪当量负荷级别
    Load level of pig manure per unit area of cultivated land
    北京市
    Beijing City
    151 360 513.68 33.94 45 0.75
    天津市
    Tianjin City
    479 170 661.85 13.81 45 0.31
    河北省
    Hebei Province
    8 716 640 8 612.63 9.88 45 0.22
    山西省
    Shanxi Province
    3 720 810 2 826.61 7.60 45 0.17
    内蒙古自治区
    Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    7 921 900 11 004.60 13.89 45 0.31
    辽宁省
    Liaoning Province
    4 064 100 7 809.22 19.22 45 0.43
    吉林省
    Jilin Province
    5 676 320 4 994.80 8.80 45 0.20
    黑龙江省
    Heilongjiang Province
    12 426 540 6 346.89 5.11 45 0.11
    上海市
    Shanghai City
    294 700 262.20 8.90 30 0.30
    江苏省
    Jiangsu Province
    7 676 920 4 956.31 6.46 30 0.22
    浙江省
    Zhejiang Province
    2 274 440 1 475.11 6.49 30 0.22
    安徽省
    Anhui Province
    8 893 610 5 122.25 5.76 30 0.19
    福建省
    Fujian Province
    2 327 310 2 635.99 11.33 30 0.38
    江西省
    Jiangxi Province
    5 560 670 5 432.40 9.77 30 0.33
    山东省
    Shandong Province
    10 973 180 13 041.43 11.88 45 0.26
    河南省
    Henan Province
    14 472 320 17 346.63 11.99 45 0.27
    湖北省
    Hubei Province
    7 843 510 8 010.21 10.21 30 0.34
    湖南省
    Hunan Province
    8 793 280 10 964.89 12.47 30 0.42
    广东省
    Guangdong Province
    4 830 830 6 296.08 13.03 30 0.43
    广西壮族自治区
    Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    6 145 310 7 549.52 12.29 30 0.41
    海南省
    Hainan Province
    823 260 1 354.60 16.45 30 0.55
    重庆市
    Chongqing
    3 600 740 3 965.34 11.01 30 0.37
    四川省
    Sichuan Province
    9 728 610 16 441.57 16.90 30 0.56
    贵州省
    Guizhou Province
    5 596 810 5 863.74 10.48 30 0.35
    云南省
    Yunnan Province
    7 164 460 9 966.37 13.91 30 0.46
    西藏自治区
    Tibet Autonomous Region
    257 900 4 817.02 186.78 45 4.15
    陕西省
    Shaanxi Province
    4 276 920 3 210.88 7.51 45 0.17
    甘肃省
    Gansu Province
    4 253 840 5 570.07 13.09 45 0.29
    青海省
    Qinghai Province
    561 330 4 271.54 76.10 45 1.69
    宁夏回族自治区
    Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
    1 275 240 1 414.72 11.09 45 0.25
    新疆维吾尔自治区
    Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
    5 867 520 5 892.51 10.04 45 0.22
    平均值
    Average
    19.55 0.49
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2019-12-05
  • 录用日期:  2020-02-18
  • 刊出日期:  2020-05-01

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