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长期添加外源有机物料对华北平原不同粒级土壤氮素和氨基糖的影响

李俊娣 张玉铭 赵宝华 胡春胜 何红波 董文旭 王玉英 李晓欣

李俊娣, 张玉铭, 赵宝华, 胡春胜, 何红波, 董文旭, 王玉英, 李晓欣. 长期添加外源有机物料对华北平原不同粒级土壤氮素和氨基糖的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(4): 507-518. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190084
引用本文: 李俊娣, 张玉铭, 赵宝华, 胡春胜, 何红波, 董文旭, 王玉英, 李晓欣. 长期添加外源有机物料对华北平原不同粒级土壤氮素和氨基糖的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(4): 507-518. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190084
LI Jundi, ZHANG Yuming, ZHAO Baohua, HU Chunsheng, HE Hongbo, DONG Wenxu, WANG Yuying, LI Xiaoxin. Effect of long-term addition of organic substances on soil nitrogen and amino sugars in particle-size fractions in the North China Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(4): 507-518. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190084
Citation: LI Jundi, ZHANG Yuming, ZHAO Baohua, HU Chunsheng, HE Hongbo, DONG Wenxu, WANG Yuying, LI Xiaoxin. Effect of long-term addition of organic substances on soil nitrogen and amino sugars in particle-size fractions in the North China Plain[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(4): 507-518. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190084

长期添加外源有机物料对华北平原不同粒级土壤氮素和氨基糖的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.190084
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2016YFD0200307

国家重点研发计划项目 2016YFD0300808

国家自然科学基金项目 41571291

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李俊娣, 主要研究方向为农田生态系统氮素物理保护机制及生物保护机制。E-mail:jundili@163.com

    通讯作者:

    张玉铭, 主要研究方向为农田生态系统养分循环与平衡及其环境效应, E-mail:ymzhang@sjziam.ac.cn

    赵宝华, 主要从事微生物技术及应用研究, E-mail:zhaobaohua@hebtu.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S153;S154.36

Effect of long-term addition of organic substances on soil nitrogen and amino sugars in particle-size fractions in the North China Plain

Funds: 

the National Key Research and Development Program of China 2016YFD0200307

the National Key Research and Development Program of China 2016YFD0300808

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41571291

More Information
  • 摘要: 华北平原是我国主要的粮食生产基地之一,农民为了追求高产,过量施用化肥的弊端日益凸显。本研究依托中国科学院栾城农业生态系统试验站有机养分循环再利用长期定位试验,开展不同外源有机物料对土壤氮素和氨基糖在不同粒级土壤库中分布的影响研究,为阐释不同农业管理措施下土壤氮素的物理保护机制和生物保护机制提供依据。定位试验设6个处理:无肥无秸秆处理(对照,CK)、单施猪圈肥(M)、单施化肥(NPK)、单施秸秆(SCK)、化肥配施猪圈肥(MNPK)和化肥配施秸秆(SNPK)。通过超声波分散-离心分离得到3种粒径土壤——砂粒级(2 000~53 μm)、粉粒级(53~2 μm)和黏粒级(< 2 μm),分析全土及各粒级土壤中全氮和3种土壤氨基糖(氨基葡萄糖、胞壁酸和氨基半乳糖)的含量及变化;基于这3种土壤氨基糖的稳定性和异源性,以氨基糖作为微生物残留物标识物,了解真菌和细菌残留物的积累和转化,阐释真菌和细菌在养分转化中的作用。结果表明:添加有机物料(秸秆、猪圈肥)明显提升了土壤全氮和氨基糖含量,粒级间土壤氮素和氨基糖含量顺序均为黏粒级>砂粒级>粉粒级。添加有机物料对砂粒级土壤氮素影响最大,长期化肥配施猪圈肥中氮素主要在砂粒级中富集,长期化肥配施秸秆的氮素主要在黏粒级中富集。添加秸秆主要提高了真菌来源的氨基葡萄糖的含量,而添加猪圈肥主要提高了土壤中细菌来源的胞壁酸含量,表明添加不同有机物料可影响土壤微生物的群落结构。从各粒级中氨基葡萄糖/胞壁酸的比值来看,添加不同类型外源有机物料对砂粒级土壤微生物群落结构影响最为明显。由此可见,在长期秸秆还田措施下实施有机粪肥部分替代化肥不仅可以减少化肥用量,还可提升土壤养分含量和微生物多样性,改善土壤质量。
  • 图  1  不同施肥处理下全土和各粒级土壤中的全氮含量

    CK:不施肥无有机物料还田; M:单施猪圈肥; NPK:单施化肥; MNPK:化肥配施猪圈肥; SNPK:化肥配施秸秆; SCK:单施秸秆。不同字母表示P < 0.05水平下差异显著。

    Figure  1.  Total nitrogen contents in bulk soil and different soil particle-size fractions under different long-term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of pig manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and pig manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Different letters indicate significant differences among different fertilization treatments for the same soil particle-size fraction at P < 0.05.

    图  2  不同施肥处理下全土的各种氨基糖含量

    CK:不施肥无有机物料还田; M:单施猪圈肥; NPK:单施化肥; MNPK:化肥配施猪圈肥; SNPK:化肥配施秸秆; SCK:单施秸秆。不同字母表示同一粒级不同处理下P < 0.05水平下差异显著。

    Figure  2.  Contents of total and individual amino sugar in bulk soil under different long-term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of pig manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and pig manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Different letters indicate significant differences among different fertilization treatments at P < 0.05.

    图  3  不同施肥处理下土壤氨基葡萄糖与胞壁酸的比值

    CK:不施肥无有机物料还田; M:单施猪圈肥; NPK:单施化肥; MNPK:化肥配施猪圈肥; SNPK:化肥配施秸秆; SCK:单施秸秆。不同字母表示同一粒级不同处理下P < 0.05水平下差异显著。

    Figure  3.  Ratio of glucosamine to muramic acid in bulk soil under different long-term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of pig manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and pig manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Different letters indicate significant differences among different fertilization treatments at P < 0.05.

    图  4  不同施肥处理下各粒级土壤中各氨基糖的含量

    CK:不施肥无有机物料还田; M:单施猪圈肥; NPK:单施化肥; MNPK:化肥配施猪圈肥; SNPK:化肥配施秸秆; SCK:单施秸秆。不同字母表示同一粒级不同处理在P < 0.05水平下差异显著。

    Figure  4.  Contents of total amino sugar (a), glucosamine (b), galactosamine (c) and muramic acid (d) in different soil particle-size fractions under different long-term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of pig manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and pig manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Different letters indicate significant differences among different fertilization treatments for the same soil particle-size fraction at P < 0.05.

    图  5  不同施肥处理下不同粒级土壤氨基葡萄糖与胞壁酸的比值

    CK:不施肥无有机物料还田; M:单施猪圈肥; NPK:单施化肥; MNPK:化肥配施猪圈肥; SNPK:化肥配施秸秆; SCK:单施秸秆。不同小写字母表示同一处理不同粒级间P < 0.05水平下差异显著; 不同大写字母表示同一粒级不同处理间P < 0.05水平下差异显著。

    Figure  5.  Ratio of glucosamine to muramic acid in different soil particle-size fractions under different long-term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of pig manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and pig manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different soil particle-size fractions under the same fertilization treatment at P < 0.05. Different capital letters indicate significant differences among different fertilization treatments for the same soil particle-size fraction at P < 0.05.

    图  6  不同施肥处理下不同粒级土壤总氨基糖(a)、氨基葡萄糖(b)、氨基半乳糖(c)和胞壁酸(d)的富集因子

    CK:不施肥无有机物料还田; M:单施猪圈肥; NPK:单施化肥; MNPK:化肥配施猪圈肥; SNPK:化肥配施秸秆; SCK:单施秸秆。不同字母表示同一粒级不同处理间P < 0.05水平下差异显著。

    Figure  6.  Enrichment factors of total amino sugar (a), glucosamine (b), galactosamine (c) and muramic acid (d) of different soil particle-size fractions under different long-term fertilization treatments

    CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of pig manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and pig manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Different letters indicate significant differences among different fertilization treatments for the same soil particle-size fraction at P < 0.05.

    表  1  长期不同肥料管理模式下0~20 cm土壤不同粒级颗粒分布

    Table  1.   Distribution of particle-size fractions in 0-20 cm bulk soil under different fertilization treatments

    施肥处理
    Fertilization
    treatment
    含量Content (%) 回收率
    Recovered
    rate (%)
    砂粒
    Sand
    粉粒
    Silt
    黏粒
    Clay
    CK 14.7±0.4a 73.4±0.7ab 11.8±0.3b 98.8±0.2
    M 13.6±1.1a 74.5±0.4ab 11.9±1.4b 97.6±0.7
    NPK 14.1±2.9a 75.8±1.5a 10.0±1.7b 97.6±0.6
    MNPK 14.2±1.0a 75.3±0.6a 10.4±0.5b 96.4±0.5
    SNPK 14.6±0.4a 74.3±0.8ab 11.1±0.6b 96.2±0.3
    SCK 13.4±0.2a 71.0±3.3b 15.6±3.1a 96.0±0.4
    CK:不施肥无有机物料还田; M:单施猪圈肥; NPK:单施化肥; MNPK:化肥配施猪圈肥; SNPK:化肥配施秸秆; SCK:单施秸秆。数据为3次重复的平均值加减标准误。同列不同字母表示P < 0.05水平下差异显著。CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of pig manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and pig manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Values are means ± S.E (n=3). Different letters within a column indicate significant differences atP < 0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同施肥处理下各粒级土壤的全氮富集因子

    Table  2.   Enrichment factors of total nitrogen in different particle-size fractions of soil under different long-term fertilization treatments

    土壤粒级
    Soil particle
    施肥处理Fertilization treatment
    CK M NPK MNPK SNPK SCK
    砂粒Sand 0.8±0.04d 1.0±0.12d 1.5±0.15b 1.8±0.08a 1.4±0.13bc 1.2±0.12c
    粉粒Silt 0.8±0.06a 0.7±0.04a 0.9±0.15a 0.8±0.09a 0.8±0.03a 0.7±0.02a
    黏粒Clay 3.5±0.12a 2.9±0.19bc 3.1±0.08bc 2.8±0.16c 3.1±0.12bc 3.2±0.17ab
    CK:不施肥无有机物料还田; M:单施猪圈肥; NPK:单施化肥; MNPK:化肥配施猪圈肥; SNPK:化肥配施秸秆; SCK:单施秸秆。数据为3次重复的平均值加减标准误。同行不同字母表示P < 0.05水平下差异显著。CK: no fertilizer without organic materials; M: single application of pig manure; NPK: application of chemical fertilizers; MNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and pig manure; SNPK: combined application of chemical fertilizers and straw; SCK: single application of straws. Values are means ± S.E (n=3). Different letters within a column indicate significant differences at P < 0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2019-01-30
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