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规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为的影响因素及其作用机理——基于山东省509家规模养猪场户的调查数据

于超 张园园 孙世民

于超, 张园园, 孙世民. 规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为的影响因素及其作用机理——基于山东省509家规模养猪场户的调查数据[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(4): 632-643. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180811
引用本文: 于超, 张园园, 孙世民. 规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为的影响因素及其作用机理——基于山东省509家规模养猪场户的调查数据[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(4): 632-643. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180811
YU Chao, ZHANG Yuanyuan, SUN Shimin. Factors affecting cognition and behavior of clean production in large-scale pig farms-A case of 509 large-scale pig farmers in Shandong Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(4): 632-643. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180811
Citation: YU Chao, ZHANG Yuanyuan, SUN Shimin. Factors affecting cognition and behavior of clean production in large-scale pig farms-A case of 509 large-scale pig farmers in Shandong Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(4): 632-643. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180811

规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为的影响因素及其作用机理——基于山东省509家规模养猪场户的调查数据

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180811
基金项目: 

山东省社会科学规划项目 18DGLJ08

山东省现代农业产业技术体系生猪创新团队建设项目 SDAIT-08-11

详细信息
    作者简介:

    于超, 研究方向为农林产业组织与管理。E-mail:scorpioyuchao@163.com

    通讯作者:

    孙世民, 主要从事畜产品供应链管理研究。E-mail:smsun@sdau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: F325

Factors affecting cognition and behavior of clean production in large-scale pig farms-A case of 509 large-scale pig farmers in Shandong Province

Funds: 

the Plan Project of Philosophy and Social Science of Shandong Province 18DGLJ08

the Modern Agricultural Industry Technology System of Pig Innovation Team Construction Project of Shandong Province SDAIT-08-11

More Information
  • 摘要: 生猪养殖是重要的环境污染源,规模养猪场户实施清洁生产行为是防治生猪养殖污染的重要途径。为从根本上降低生猪养殖污染,避免废弃物末端治理带来的弊端,实现环境效益与经济效益相统一。依据计划行为理论,利用山东省17地市509份问卷调查数据,运用结构方程模型,实证研究了规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为的影响因素及其作用机理。结果表明,由如何看待清洁生产和对生猪养殖污染熟悉度组成的规模养猪场户清洁生产态度,以及由年龄、受教育年限和生猪养殖出栏量组成的规模养猪场户禀赋特征对清洁生产认知具有显著的正向影响;由政府对清洁生产支持力度和经营组织对清洁生产的要求组成的外部规范对清洁生产认知有正向影响,但并不显著;规模养猪场户清洁生产认知对源头预防行为、过程控制行为和末端治理行为有显著的正向影响;规模养猪场户清洁生产态度、禀赋特征及外部规范约束对清洁生产行为有间接影响。其作用机理为:规模养猪场户清洁生产行为受制于认知程度,而认知程度又是行为主体态度、外部规范和主体自身禀赋特征共同作用的结果,而三者产生的作用条件又归因于外界环境(政府机构、经营组织、上下游企业等)与行为主体间的不断沟通。可见,规模养猪场户清洁生产行为作用机理并非单个因素间简单的线性作用,而是全产业链参与者与其所处环境间相互作用的结果。因此,应当根据认知与行为的影响因素和作用机理,提高规模养猪场户对清洁生产的积极态度,加强外部规范性,强化主体自身良好的禀赋,通过较高的认知水平正向作用于行为的形成和完善,并最终从根本上降低生猪养殖污染,实现经济效益与环境效益相统一。
  • 图  1  规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为研究框架图

    Figure  1.  Research framework for cognition and behavior of clean production of large-scale pig farmers

    图  2  修正后的规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为影响因素结构方程模型标准拟合路径图(非标准化)

    Figure  2.  Path diagram of the modified structural equation model (non-standardized) of factors affecting cognition and behavior of cleaner production of large-scale pig farms

    表  1  受访规模养猪场户生猪出栏量分布状况

    Table  1.   Slaughter fattened hogs distribution of large-scale pig farm respondents

    出栏量Slaughter fattened hogs (head) 100~499 500~2 999 3 000~9 999 10 000~49 999
    数量Quantity 215 209 74 11
    比例Proportion (%) 42.24 41.06 14.54 2.16
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  受访规模养猪场户个体特征及生猪养殖基本情况

    Table  2.   Individual characteristics of sample large-scale pig farm respondents and description of the basic situation of farming

    项目
    Item
    类别
    Category
    百分比
    Percent(%)
    性别
    Sex
    男Man 78.71
    女Woman 21.29
    年龄
    Age


    ≤35 10.99
    36~45 34.55
    46~59 52.88
    ≥60 2.09
    文化程度
    Education


    小学及以下Primary school or below 9.16
    初中Junior high school 41.10
    高中Senior high school 32.98
    专科及以上University or above 14.14
    年出栏量
    Slaughter fattened hogs (head)


    100~499 40.05
    500~2 999 40.31
    3 000~9 999 8.64
    10 000~49 999 3.14
    ≥50 000 1.05
    养殖年限
    Breeding years (a)


    ≤5 22.51
    6~10 38.22
    11~15 19.63
    16~20 12.57
    ≥20 14.14
    收入占比
    Income ratio (%)


    ≤30 9.42
    30~49 5.76
    50~79 31.15
    ≥80 52.62
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为影响因素的变量说明

    Table  3.   Variables description of factors affecting cognition and behavior of cleaner production of large-scale pig farms

    潜变量
    Latent variable
    测量变量
    Measured variable
    变量取值
    Variable value
    禀赋特征
    Endowment characteristics
    年龄(PBC1) Age 受访者实际年龄Respondent’s actual age
    受教育年限(PBC2)
    Education years
    受访者实际受教育年限
    Actual schooling years of respondents (a)
    生猪养殖出栏量(PBC3)
    Slaughter fattened hogs
    受访者实际出栏量
    Actual amount of slaughter fattened hogs (head)
    清洁生产态度
    Attitude toward clean production
    如何看待生猪清洁生产
    (ATT1)
    How to consider pig clean production
    没必要=1;是一种趋势, 但目前条件不具备=2;是一种社会责任, 应全面展开=3
    No need = 1; just a trend, without available conditions currently = 2; a social responsibility and should be fully developed = 3
    对生猪养殖污染的了解程度(ATT2)
    Understanding of the pollution of pig breeding
    非常不了解=1;不了解=2;一般=3;了解=4;非常了解=5
    Absolutely unknown = 1; not understand = 2; general = 3; understand = 4; clearly understand = 5
    外部规范
    External regulation
    政府支持力度(SN1)
    Government support
    非常不支持=1;不支持=2;一般=3;支持=4;非常支持=5
    Absolutely unsupported = 1; not supported = 2; general = 3; support = 4; very support = 5
    合作组织要求(SN2)
    Cooperative organization requirements
    要求非常低=1;低要求=2;一般要求=3;高要求=4;要求非常高=5
    Very low requirement = 1; low requirement = 2; general requirement = 3; high requirement = 4; very high requirement = 5
    清洁生产认知
    Clean production cognition
    清洁生产内容认知(C1)
    Content cognition
    非常不熟悉=1;不熟悉=2;一般熟悉=3;熟悉=4;非常熟悉=5
    Very unfamiliar = 1; unfamiliar = 2; generally familiar = 3; familiar = 4; very familiar = 5
    清洁生产政策认知(C2)
    Clean production policy cognition
    非常不熟悉=1;不熟悉=2;一般熟悉=3;熟悉=4;非常熟悉=5
    Very unfamiliar = 1; unfamiliar = 2; generally familiar = 3; familiar = 4; very familiar = 5
    源头预防行为
    Source prevention behavior
    种猪购买来源(B1a)
    Boar purchase source
    自繁自养, 从集贸市场或外地购买=1;自繁自养, 购买种猪精液或购进良种公猪=2, 屠宰企业统一提供=3;从种猪场购买=4
    Self-supporting, buying from the market or outside = 1; self-supporting, buying pig semen or purchasing improved boar = 2; slaughtering enterprise providing = 3; buying from breeding farm = 4
    饲料购买来源(B1b)
    Feed purchase source
    自制饲料=1;购买有品牌未获得认证的饲料=2;购买绿色认证饲料=3;购买有机认证饲料=4
    Homemade feed = 1; purchase of branded uncertified feed = 2; purchase of green certified feed = 3; purchase of organic certified feed = 4
    兽药购买来源(B1c)
    Veterinary drug purchase source
    自己配制=1;购买无品牌兽药=2;购买有品牌兽药=3
    Prepare self = 1; buy unbranded veterinary drugs = 2; buy branded veterinary drugs = 3
    过程控制行为
    Process control behavior
    兽药休药期设定(B2a)
    Veterinary drug withdrawal period setting
    不可考虑=1;出栏前3~5 d停止用药=2;出栏前6~10 d停止用药=3;按照兽药要求设定=4
    No consider = 1; stop taking drug 3-5 days before the release = 2; stop taking drug 6-10 days before slaughter = 3; according to the requirements of drugs = 4
    场区清洁方式(B2b)
    Pig farm cleaning method
    全部水冲式=1;绝大部分水冲式=2;部分水冲式=3;较少水冲式=4
    All water flush type = 1; most water flush type = 2; partial water flush type = 3; less water flush type = 4
    消毒周期(B2c)
    Cycle of disinfection
    从不消毒=1; 1年=2; 3个月=3; 1个月=4; 2周=5; 1周=6; 3~4 d=7
    Never = 1; one year = 2; three months = 3; one month = 4; two weeks = 5; one week = 6; 3 to 4 days = 7
    末端治理行为
    Terminal governance behavior
    粪水处理(B3a)
    Manure treatment
    直接排放=1;简单固液分离=2;深度处理=31)
    Direct discharge = 1; simple solid-liquid separation = 2; advanced treatment = 31)
    粪便处理(B3b)
    Fecal treatment
    废弃=1;自用=2;商业用=32)
    Discard = 1; self-use = 2; commercial = 32)
    病死猪处理(B3c)
    Sick pig treatment
    加工卖掉=1;扔掉=2;深埋=3;焚烧=4;化制=5;交由专业机构处理=6
    Sold after death = 1; thrown away after death = 2; deep buried = 3; incineration = 4; chemical = 5; handed over to professional institutions = 6
    1)粪水处理方式中“深度处理”包括厌氧反应、好氧处理、溶气气浮工艺; 2)粪污处理方式中“自用”包括直接还田和生产沼气, “商用”包括“出售”和“制造商业有机肥”。1) “advanced treatment” in the treatment of manure includes anaerobic reaction, aerobic treatment, dissolved air flotation process; 2) “self-use” in the treatment of manure includes direct return to the field and production of biogas, “commercial” includes “sale” and “manufacturing commercial organic fertilizer”.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为测量指标因子载荷

    Table  4.   Measurement indexes factor loads of clean production cognition and behavioral of large-scale pig farms

    潜变量
    Latent variable
    测量变量
    Measured variable
    测量指标
    Measurement standard
    因子载荷
    Factor load
    规模养猪场户禀赋特征
    Large-scale pig farm endowment characteristics
    PBC1 年龄Age 0.737
    PBC2 受教育年限Education years 0.795
    PBC3 生猪养殖出栏量Slaughter fattened hogs 0.745
    规模养猪场户清洁生产态度
    Large-scale pig farms clean production attitude
    ATT1 您如何看待生猪清洁生产How to treat pig clean production 0.519
    ATT2 您是否了解生猪养殖污染Understanding of the pollution of pig breeding 0.594
    外部规范
    External norm
    SN1 政府支持力度Government support 0.640
    SN2 合作组织要求Cooperative organization requirements 0.683
    清洁生产认知
    Clean production cognition
    C1 清洁生产内容认知Clean production content cognition 0.666
    C2 清洁生产政策认知Clean production policy cognition 0.568
    源头预防行为
    Source prevention
    B1a 种猪购买来源Pig purchase source 0.674
    B1b 饲料购买来源Feed purchase source 0.686
    B1c 兽药购买来源Veterinary drug purchase source 0.707
    过程控制行为
    Process control
    B2a 兽药休药期设定Veterinary drug withdrawal period setting 0.735
    B2b 场区清洁方式Pig farm cleaning method 0.554
    B2c 消毒频次Frequency of disinfection 0.521
    末端治理行为
    End treatment
    B3a 粪水处理方式Manure treatment 0.617
    B3b 粪便处理方式Fecal treatment 0.668
    B3c 病死猪处理方式Sick pig treatment 0.574
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为影响因素结构方程模型假设检验结果(结构模型)

    Table  5.   Hypothesis test results of structural equation model (structural model) of factors affecting cognition and behavior of cleaner production of large-scale pig farms

    假设
    Hypothesis
    关系表达
    Relational expression
    估计
    Estimated value
    P
    P value
    结论
    Conclusion
    H1 规模养猪场户清洁生产态度→清洁生产认知
    Clean production attitude → clean production cognition
    0.524 ** 支持
    Supported
    H2 外部规范→清洁生产认知
    External norm → clean production cognition
    0.205 0.263 不支持
    Unsupported
    H3 规模养猪场户禀赋特征→清洁生产认知
    Endowment characteristics → clean production cognition
    0.239 * 支持
    Supported
    H4a 清洁生产认知→源头预防
    Clean production cognition → source prevention
    0.416 *** 支持
    Supported
    H4b 清洁生产认知→过程控制
    Clean production cognition → process control
    0.787 *** 支持
    Supported
    H4c 清洁生产认知→末端治理
    Clean production cognition → end treatment
    0.580 *** 支持
    Supported
    ***: P < 0.001; **: P < 0.005; *: P < 0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为影响因素结构方程模型假设检验结果(测量模型)

    Table  6.   Hypothesis test result of structural equation model (measurement model) of factors affecting cognition and behavior of cleaner production of large-scale pig farms

    关系表达式
    Relational expression
    估计
    Estimated value
    S. E.值
    S. E. value
    C. R.值
    C. R. value
    P
    P value
    源头预防→饲料购买来源Source prevention → feed purchase source 1.000
    源头预防→种猪购买来源Source prevention → pig purchase source 0.737 0.242 3.045 **
    源头预防→兽药购买来源Source prevention → veterinary drug purchase source 0.571 0.173 3.294 ***
    过程控制→场区清洁方式Process control → pig farm cleaning method 1.000
    过程控制→消毒频次Process control → frequency of disinfection 1.643 0.350 4.688 ***
    过程控制→兽药休药期设定Process control → veterinary drug withdrawal period setting 0.703 0.166 4.232 ***
    末端治理→粪水处理方式End treatment → manure treatment 1.000
    末端治理→粪便处理方式End treatment → fecal treatment 0.586 0.122 4.811 ***
    末端治理→病死猪处理方式End treatment → sick pig treatment 2.408 0.400 6.014 ***
    规模养猪场户禀赋特征→受教育年限Endowment characteristics → education years 1.000
    规模养猪场户禀赋特征→年龄Endowment characteristics → age 0.766 0.193 3.974 ***
    规模养猪场户禀赋特征→生猪养殖出栏量Endowment characteristics → slaughter fattened hogs 6 635.388 2 094.840 3.167 **
    规模养猪场户清洁生产态度→对生猪养殖污染的了解Clean production attitude → understanding of the pollution of pig breeding 1.000
    规模养猪场户清洁生产态度→如何看待清洁生产Clean production attitude → how to treat pig clean production 0.592 0.084 7.015 ***
    外部规范→政府支持力度External norm → government support 1.000
    外部规范→经营组织要求External norm → cooperative organization requirements 1.385 0.351 3.943 ***
    清洁生产认知→清洁生产政策认知Clean production cognition → clean production policy cognition 1.000
    清洁生产认知→清洁生产内容认知Clean production cognition → clean production content cognition 0.744 0.144 5.157 ***
    ***: P < 0.001; **: P < 0.005; *: P < 0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为影响因素结构方程模型整体适配度评价指标及拟合结果

    Table  7.   Evaluation index system and the fitting results of structure equation model of factors affecting cognition and behavior of cleaner production of large-scale pig farms

    统计检验量
    Statistical test variable
    适配标准
    Suggestive value
    模型实际值
    Model actual value
    模型拟合判断
    Model fitting judgment
    RMSEA < 0.05 0.036 是Yes
    GFI > 0.90 0.949 是Yes
    AGFI > 0.90 0.929 是Yes
    IFI > 0.90 0.907 是Yes
    CFI > 0.90 0.903 是Yes
    PGFI > 0.50 0.688 是Yes
    PNFI > 0.50 0.619 是Yes
    PCFI > 0.50 0.732 是Yes
    CN > 200.00 311.000 是Yes
    CMIN/DF < 2.00 1.496 是Yes
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  规模养猪场户清洁生产认知与行为变量间的间接影响关系(标准化路径系数)

    Table  8.   Indirect effects among variables of clean production cognition and behavior of large-scale pig farms (standardized path coefficients)

    规模养猪场户清洁生产态度
    Clean production attitude of large-scale pig farms
    规模养猪场户禀赋特征
    Endowment characteristics of large-scale pig farm
    外部规范
    External norm
    病死猪处理方式Sick pig treatment 0.277 0.121 0.085
    粪便处理方式Fecal treatment 0.177 0.077 0.055
    粪水处理方式Manure treatment 0.250 0.109 0.077
    兽药休药期设定Veterinary drug withdrawal period setting 0.212 0.093 0.065
    消毒频次Frequency of disinfection 0.274 0.119 0.084
    场区清洁方式Pig farm cleaning method 0.201 0.088 0.062
    兽药购买来源Veterinary drug purchase source 0.172 0.075 0.053
    种猪购买来源Pig purchase source 0.123 0.054 0.038
    饲料购买来源Feed purchase source 0.126 0.055 0.039
    对没有相互影响关系的变量不做显示。Variables that do not interact with each other are not displayed.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-08-31
  • 录用日期:  2018-10-20
  • 刊出日期:  2019-04-01

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