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基于GIS和土地质量地球化学数据的水稻种植适宜性评价——以安徽省青阳县为例

韩慧杰 夏学齐 吴海东 汤明 姜明亮

韩慧杰, 夏学齐, 吴海东, 汤明, 姜明亮. 基于GIS和土地质量地球化学数据的水稻种植适宜性评价——以安徽省青阳县为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(4): 591-600. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180699
引用本文: 韩慧杰, 夏学齐, 吴海东, 汤明, 姜明亮. 基于GIS和土地质量地球化学数据的水稻种植适宜性评价——以安徽省青阳县为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(4): 591-600. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180699
HAN Huijie, XIA Xueqi, WU Haidong, TANG Ming, JIANG Mingliang. Evaluation of rice planting suitability using GIS and geochemical land quality data-A case study of Qingyang County, Anhui Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(4): 591-600. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180699
Citation: HAN Huijie, XIA Xueqi, WU Haidong, TANG Ming, JIANG Mingliang. Evaluation of rice planting suitability using GIS and geochemical land quality data-A case study of Qingyang County, Anhui Province[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(4): 591-600. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180699

基于GIS和土地质量地球化学数据的水稻种植适宜性评价——以安徽省青阳县为例

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180699
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划 2017YFD0800300

安徽省国土资源厅公益性土地质量地球化学调查项目 2015-g-20

详细信息
    作者简介:

    韩慧杰, 主要从事环境地球化学研究工作。E-mail:hanhj666@163.com

    通讯作者:

    夏学齐, 主要从事环境地球化学的教学和研究工作。E-mail:xiaxueqi@cugb.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S511

Evaluation of rice planting suitability using GIS and geochemical land quality data-A case study of Qingyang County, Anhui Province

Funds: 

the National Key R & D Program of China 2017YFD0800300

the Land Quality Geochemical Survey Project in Public Welfare of Anhui Provincial Department of Land and Resources 2015-g-20

More Information
  • 摘要: 为加快安徽省青阳县的高标准基本农田建设,开展更加精准的水稻种植适宜性评价,本文根据研究区土地质量地球化学数据和当地水稻对生长环境的需求,通过层次分析法(AHP)把水稻种植适宜性评价作为目标层,把影响目标层的立地条件、理化性质、土壤质量、土地管理作为准则层,再把影响准则层中各因素的项目作为指标层,确定研究区水稻种植适宜性评价的层次模型,构建了包括土壤养分、土壤环境、土壤质地、有机质、排水和灌溉能力等在内共计12项指标的评价体系。以研究区二调图斑为评价单元,根据数字高程模型(DEM)数据获取精准的田面坡度数据,同时结合GIS空间分析技术对地球化学数据进行空间插值模拟。利用特尔菲法(Delphi)获取各指标隶属度并构建判断矩阵,使用MATLAB数学软件求出各指标的权重,计算获取水稻种植适宜性综合指数(RSI),进行适宜性评价。结果显示:“高度适宜”面积为36.89 km2,占基本农田总面积的19.80%,主要分布在研究区中部及南部地区;“适宜”和“勉强适宜”面积分别为61.95 km2和60.89 km2,分别占33.25%和32.68%,分散分布;“不适宜”面积约26.60 km2,占比14.27%,主要位于研究区中部及北部地区。利用实测水稻籽实Cd含量与该评价方法得到的水稻种植适宜性综合指数(RSI)进行分析,发现两者呈显著负相关,随着RSI的增长,水稻籽实中Cd含量逐渐降低,意味着水稻品质的提高,同时也减少了可能通过食物链对生态环境造成的危害。该结果从生态安全方面证明此评价方法的正确性和适用性。本文探讨了土地质量地球化学数据所反映的水稻生产问题,改善了以往农业种植适宜性评价工作中大量使用描述性指标和指标分级模糊不清所导致的主观性较大和评价方法不易推广等问题,不仅为作物种植适宜性评价提供了新的方法,而且为生态农业发展指明了方向。
  • 图  1  研究区青阳县土壤类型分布图

    Figure  1.  Distribution map of soil types of the study area of Qingyang County

    图  2  研究区水稻种植适宜性空间分布

    Figure  2.  Spatial distribution of rice planting suitability in the study area

    图  3  水稻籽实Cd含量与水稻种植适宜性综合指数之间的关系

    Figure  3.  Relationship between Cd content in rice grains and the comprehensive index of rice planting suitability

    表  1  研究区青阳县土壤类型统计表

    Table  1.   Soil type statistics of the study area of Qingyang County

    土纲
    Soil class
    亚纲
    Subclass
    土类
    Soil group
    亚类
    Subgroup
    所占面积
    Area (km2)
    所占比例
    Ratio (%)
    人为土
    Anthropogenic soil
    人为水成土
    Anthropogenic aquatic soil
    水稻土
    Paddy soil
    潴育水稻土
    Submergenic paddy soil
    206.83 17.52
    潜育水稻土
    Gleyed paddy soil
    16.11 1.36
    铁铝土
    Ferralsol
    湿热铁铝土
    Muggy ferralsol
    红壤Red soil 513.13 43.47
    湿暖铁铝土
    Humid ferralsol
    黄壤
    Yellow soil
    2.10 0.18
    淋溶土
    Alfisol
    温暖淋溶土
    Warm alfisol
    黄棕壤
    Yellow-brown soil
    18.38 1.56
    温湿淋溶土
    Humid alfisol
    暗棕壤
    Dark brown soil
    28.27 2.39
    初育土
    Primitive soil
    石质初育土
    Lithic primitive soil
    石灰岩土
    Limestone soil
    125.88 10.66
    紫色土
    Purple soil
    84.29 7.14
    石质土
    Lithosol
    6.37 0.54
    粗骨土
    Skeletal soil
    179.18 15.18
    合计
    Total
    1 180.54 100.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  水稻种植适宜性评价层次模型

    Table  2.   Hierarchical model of rice planting suitability evaluation

    目标层(A)
    Destination layer (A)
    准则层(B)
    Criterion layer (B)
    指标层(C)
    Index layer (C)
    水稻种植
    适宜性评价
    Rice planting suitability evaluation
    立地条件
    Site conditions
    田块大小Field size
    田块规整度Field regularity
    田面坡度Field slope
    土壤理化性质
    Physicochemical properties of soil
    质地Texture
    有机质Organic matter
    土壤质量
    Soil qualities
    pH
    碱解氮Available nitrogen
    速效磷Available phosphorus
    速效钾Available potassium
    土地管理
    Land management
    土壤环境Soil environment
    (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn)
    排涝能力Drainage capability
    灌溉能力Irrigation capacity
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  水稻种植适宜性评价模型中目标层(A)判断矩阵

    Table  3.   Objective layer (A) judgment matrix in the evaluation model of rice planting suitability

    立地条件
    Site conditions
    土壤理化性质
    Soil physicochemical property
    土壤质量
    Soil quality
    土地管理
    Land management
    立地条件Site conditions 1.000 0 1.200 0 1.800 0 1.000 0
    理化性质Soil physicochemical property 0.833 3 1.000 0 1.500 0 0.833 3
    土壤质量Soil quality 0.555 6 0.666 7 1.000 0 0.555 6
    土地管理Land management 1.000 0 1.200 0 1.800 0 1.000 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  水稻种植适宜性评价指标体系的组合权重计算表

    Table  4.   Combination weight calculation table of the evaluation index system of rice planting suitability

    立地条件
    Site
    conditions
    土壤理化性质
    Soil physicochemical property
    土壤质量
    Soil quality
    土地管理
    Land management
    组合权重
    Combination weight
    0.20 0.24 0.36 0.20
    田块大小Field size 0.16 0.048 0
    田块规整度Field regularity 0.20 0.056 0
    田面坡度Field slope 0.36 0.096 0
    质地Texture 0.38 0.072 0
    有机质Organic matter 0.28 0.086 4
    pH 0.34 0.081 6
    碱解氮Available nitrogen 0.16 0.057 6
    速效磷Available phosphorus 0.24 0.086 4
    速效钾Available potassium 0.28 0.100 8
    土壤环境Soil environment 0.32 0.115 2
    排涝能力Drainage capability 0.40 0.080 0
    灌溉能力Irrigation capacity 0.60 0.120 0
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  水稻种植适宜性评价指标中部分指标隶属度划分

    Table  5.   Membership division of partial indexes of rice planting suitability evaluation

    指标
    Index
    隶属度分值与等级划分Membership score and grade division
    1 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.2
    田块大小Field size (m2) ≥300 100~300 50~100 < 50
    田块规整度Field regularity < 0.5 0.5~1 1~2 2~5 ≥5
    田面坡度Field slope (°) < 2 2~5 5~10 10~15 ≥15
    1 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.4
    有机质Organic matter (g∙kg-1) > 40 30~40 20~30 10~20 ≤10
    碱解氮Available nitrogen (mg∙kg-1) > 150 120~150 90~120 60~90 ≤60
    速效磷Available phosphorus (mg∙kg-1) > 40 20~40 10~20 5~10 ≤5
    速效钾Available potassium (mg∙kg-1) > 200 150~200 100~150 50~100 ≤50
    1 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.1
    土壤环境Soil environment 一等Class 1 二等Class 2 三等Class 3 四等Class 4 五等Class 5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  研究区水稻种植适宜性评价分级结果

    Table  6.   Grading scheme of suitability evaluation of rice planting in the study area

    适宜性
    Suitability
    水稻种植适宜性综合指数
    Comprehensive index of rice planting suitability (RSI)
    评价单元
    Evaluation unit
    农田
    Farmland
    单元数
    Number
    比例
    Ratio (%)
    面积
    Area (km2)
    比例
    Ratio (%)
    高度适宜Highly suitable ≥0.836 1 622 19.35 36.893 6 19.80
    适宜Suitable 0.805~0.836 2 904 34.64 61.948 0 33.25
    勉强适宜Barely suitable 0.770~0.805 2 885 34.41 60.889 8 32.68
    不适宜Unsuitable < 0.770 973 11.60 26.595 4 14.27
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  本评价方法与前人评价方法的研究区水稻种植适宜性评价结果对比

    Table  7.   Comparison of evaluation results of rice planting suitability of the study area between this method and the previous one

    适宜性
    Suitability
    面积比例Area rate (%)
    前人方法
    Previous method
    本文方法
    This method
    高度适宜Highly suitable 21.70 19.80
    适宜Suitable 32.40 33.25
    勉强适宜Barely suitable 37.50 32.68
    不适宜Unsuitable 8.40 14.27
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-07-26
  • 录用日期:  2018-12-28
  • 刊出日期:  2019-04-01

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