Research on the rural homestay inn development under the view of rural revi-talization: A case of "Ten Thousand Hostels" in Zengcheng District, Guangzhou City
摘要: 近年来，中国乡村民宿蓬勃发展，业已成为助推乡村振兴的重要途径。2014年以来，广州市增城区通过实施打造"万家旅舍"民宿品牌，实现了乡村民宿产业的飞跃发展，对该模式进行评估是现实需要，也具有示范价值。本文首先总结了乡村民宿发展及相关研究进展概况，随后以万家旅舍为研究对象，采用实地调查、深度访谈等研究方法，对增城区乡村民宿的经营模式进行了总结与评估。结果表明，乡村民宿产业的发展，从盘活闲置住房、带动农村居民创业就业、改善农村居住环境、推动产业融合发展等方面带动了乡村振兴；乡村民宿以农户自主经营型为主，其经营多依赖于地方旅游产业的发展水平和发展模式，存在产品同质化现象较为严重、市场缺少细分、竞争激烈等问题；企业经营型民宿正处于快速发展阶段，呈现出多种经营模式，但行业界限较为模糊。增城万家旅舍的成功经验以及面对的问题在国内具有代表性，应对乡村振兴战略的需要，政府及行业层面应采取以下对策推动乡村民宿产业发展：完善相关法规，以全域旅游促民宿发展，助力乡村产业兴旺；打造特色民宿，注入更多乡土元素，助力乡村文化建设；发展生态民宿，带动周边环境与设施建设，助力乡村生态文明建设；提高从业人员素质，吸引乡村创客，助力乡村人才振兴。Abstract: The vigorous development of rural homestay inn industry has become an important way to boost the rural revitalization in China in recent years, however, there are inadequate researches on this subject. Through the implementation of a homestay inn project, "Ten Thousand Hostels" since 2014, the rapid development of rural homestay inn industry has been realized in Zengcheng District of Guangzhou City. It's of a practical requirement and demonstration value to clarify the operating characteristics and difficulties in development of this model. The research methods of field investigation and in-depth interview were performed to investigate and study the business patterns of rural homestay inns in three representative sites of Zengcheng District in March 16 to 18, March 28 and May 23 to 24 of 2018. 27 operators of the rural homestay inns were investigated, of them 18 were from farmer-operated homestay inn, and 9 from enterprise-operated homestay inns. Results revealed that farmer-operated homestay inns accounted for the majority of Ten Thousand Hostels, and their operations were closely geared to the development level and pattern of local tourism industry. However, there were some difficulties needed to be resolved, such as the serious product homogeneity, less of market segmentation, fierce competition, etc. Simultaneously, enterprise-operated homestay inns were in a period of rapid development and made up of diversified business patterns, but their boundary of the industry was relatively vague. The success experiences and existing problems of Ten Thousand Hostels reflected the characteristics of the rural homestay inns in China. Around the need of rural revitalization strategy, the government and industry association should adopt the following countermeasures to promote the development of rural homestay inns:1) perfecting the relevant law and policy and developing holistic tourism to inspire the homestay inn's evolution for the sake of the rural industrial blossom; 2) building characteristic homestay inns with more elements of native area to help rural cultural construction; 3) building ecological homestay inns and promoting surrounding environment and facilities for giving impetus to the rural ecological civilization practice; 4) improving the quality of industry personnel and encouraging rural makers to get involved for the sake of the rural human resources development.
表 1 27家受访民宿的区位、设施与经营概况
Table 1. The location, facilities and operation of 27 surveyed homestay inns
Facilities & services
Tourism development nearby
9间, 别墅2栋; 含餐饮、棋牌、烧烤等服务
9 rooms, 2 villas; services cover catering, chess & cards, barbecue, etc.
单间118元起, 别墅每栋600元起。≥118 ¥ per room; ≥600 ¥ per villa 紧邻白水寨, 附近有温泉度假区Baishuizhai scenic area and some hot spring resorts are around A2 派潭
12间, 别墅1栋; 含餐饮、棋牌、烧烤等服务
12 rooms, 1 villa; services cover catering, chess & cards, barbecue, etc.
同上Ditto 同上Ditto A3 派潭
9 rooms; services cover catering, chess & cards, etc.
138元起≥138 ¥ 同上Ditto A4 派潭
11 rooms; services cover chess & cards, etc.
85元起≥85 ¥ 同上Ditto A5 派潭
17 rooms; remodeled from an abandoned-school
100元起≥100 ¥ 同上Ditto A6 派潭
22 rooms; services cover fishing, farming experience, etc.
About 200 ¥
Some houses were built in the age of the Qing Dynasty.
9 rooms; services cover fishing, farming experience, etc.
100元左右About 100 ¥ 游客可在附近登山、游水
The guest can climb mountains and swim nearby.
3 rooms; services cover catering, bike renting, etc.
120元起≥120 ¥ 莲塘春色景区内
Located in the Liantang Spring scenic area
6 rooms; services cover catering, bike renting, etc.
同上Ditto 同上Ditto A10 正果
9 rooms; services cover chess & cards, barbecue, etc.
150元起≥150 ¥ 蒙花布乡村公园内
Located in the Menghuabu rural park
8 rooms; services cover chess & cards, local product sales, bike renting, etc.
同上Ditto 同上Ditto A12 正果
3间3 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto A13 正果
7间7 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto A14 正果
9间9 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto A15 正果
11间11 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto A16 正果
6间6 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto A17 正果
4间4 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto A18 正果
7 rooms; services cover chess & cards, barbecue, etc.
同上Ditto 同上Ditto B1 派潭
27 rooms; services cover chess & cards, drinking tea, catering, etc.
780元起≥780 ¥ 白水寨景区内
Located in the Baishuizhai scenic area
12 rooms; services cover meeting, camping, barbecue, wedding feast, etc.
360元起≥360 ¥ 紧邻白水寨, 附近有温泉度假区Baishuizhai scenic area with some hot spring resorts around B3 派潭
13间, 外加别墅2栋; 含餐饮、品茗等服务
13 rooms, 2 villas; services cover catering, drinking tea, etc.
468元起≥468 ¥ 传统客家民宅风格
Style of Hakka houses
33间; 为田园综合体项目, 含餐饮、儿童乐园、温泉、品茗、书室等服务
33 rooms; rural complex; services cover catering, children corner, hot spring, drinking tea, library, etc.
698元起≥698 ¥ 主建筑为清至民国时期所建
Some houses were built in the age of the Republic of China.
8 rooms; services cover KTV, barbecue, fishing, etc.
290元起≥290 ¥ 增江边, 绿道驿站, 镇旅游咨询中心Along the Zengjiang River; Greenway Service Center; Tourist Information Center B6 正果
34间; 为旧厂房改建, 含健身、品茗、餐饮等服务
34 rooms; remodeled from an abandoned factory; services cover gym, drinking tea, catering, etc.
700元起≥700 ¥ 增江边
Along the Zengjiang River
28 rooms; services cover catering, etc.
680元起≥680 ¥ 二龙山景区内
Located in the Erlongshan scenic area
9间, 别墅2栋; 含餐饮、会议、KTV、土特产销售、游泳等服务
9 rooms, 2 villas; services cover catering, meeting, KTV, local product sales, swimming, etc.
158元起≥158 ¥ 绿道驿站Greenway Service Center B9 中新
3间, 外加别墅8栋; 含餐饮、会议、健身、养生等服务
3 rooms, 8 villas; services cover catering, meeting, gym, regimen, etc.
200元起≥200 ¥ 1)农户自主经营型万家旅舍编号为A, 企业经营型万家旅舍编号为B; 2)部分订房价格信息来源于增城万家旅舍旅游网。1) The “A” represents the farmer-operated homestay inns, and the “B” represents the enterprise-operated homestay inns. 2) Some of booking prices are from the Ten Thousand Hostels website.
表 2 农户自主经营型民宿受访者的代表性观点
Table 2. Representative perspectives of respondents of farmer-operated homestay inns
Expresser / relevant things
代表性观点Representative point of view A1/市场营销
A1 / marketing
Nothing has been done on marketing which mainly relied on repeat guests.
A1 / operating mode
温泉酒店的房价一晚几千元钱。民宿4个房间一千来块钱左右, 再加上泡温泉100 ¥左右, 比较便宜
In hot spring hotels, its price per room per day is several times that of homestay inn with 250 ¥ per day, plus hot spring ticket at about 100 ¥.
A5 / operating idea
因没有装修, 外面看起来客人感觉很一般, 到里面看了之后, 感觉还好。所以外表就不去怎么装修了, 可以省钱
Guests don’t care much about exterior decoration of inns. So, it’s unwise to spend a lot of money on it.
A5 / marketing
我们很少宣传, 因为才十多间房, 宣传出去的话, 没有地方给客人住
We have no need to attract more guests because we just have more than ten rooms.
A7 / operating mode
大家是家庭小本经营。只在特别忙的时候, 才会去请一些人, 按天计算费用
It just is a small business run by a single family. Only when we are busy we can employ some people, and the pay is calculated on a daily basis.
A8 / operating idea
My aim is that guests don’t want to leave after they visited here. I don’t need to follow other peers.
A9 / difficulty
晚上住在这里, 除了烧烤, 没什么娱乐活动, 也没好逛的。第2天行程同样是骑自行车。景点不大, 顾客没必要留两天
Beside the barbecue, guests remaining here at night have no choice for recreation. The spot area is small and there is no new thing for the next day. So, most guests don’t like coming here for a two-day travel.
A11 / operating idea
游客来到这里, 我们要有热情, 没有热情就没有回头客
We need to have passion for the business, otherwise no guests come here.
A12 / operating mode
房子就3间, 又不是套房。游客太少, 我们只有旺季才做
There are only three rooms, no suites. Ordinarily not much business is done.
A14 / operating mode
周一至周五是180 ¥, 周末就是200 ¥, 但在国庆、五一这种假日会加一点
The cost of one room is 180 ¥ in weekdays, 200 ¥ in weekend, and much higher in National Day and Labor Day holidays.
A15 / difficulty
There is no business in winter. We are worry about this.
A15 / difficulty
客人晚上出去走一下？不行, 街上有很多狗, 也没人管。你说我都怕, 那些城里来的人能不怕吗?
There are many crazy dogs on the street. Those guests coming from the city don’t dare to go out after dark.
A16 / operating mode
我和我妈管, 妈妈管的更多一些, 我主要带孩子, 年轻人谁在这里啊
My mom and I are in charge of the business, but raising children is my main job. Young people don’t like to stay here.
A17 / operating idea
It’s no big deal. When no guests, we live alone.
A18 / marketing
我的经营就是靠熟客。熟客打个电话过来, 有时候钥匙就给他们, 大家太熟了!
My business depends entirely on repeat guests. We’re so familiar that sometimes I’ll give them the key after getting guest’s call.
表达人以民宿编号表示。The expresser is represented by the number of homestay inns.
表 3 企业经营型民宿受访者的代表性观点
Table 3. Representative perspectives of respondents of enterprise-operated homestay inns
Expresser/ relevant things
代表性观点Representative point of view B1/经营方式
B1 / operating mode
这里有很多喝茶的地方, 顾客也可以自己做饭, 有会议室, 也可以唱歌
There are some places for drinking tea here. Guests can also cook, hold a meeting, and sing.
B1 / operating idea
顾客过来就是体验民宿的, 房间太少的话, 如果是团队, 只能安排十几个人, 剩下的一半住哪里去?
Guests come here for experiencing the homestay inns. There are many guests in the group, so if the rooms are not enough, it will be hard to arrange them.
B1 / marketing
网上预订的也有, 但是比较少。老板在外面也做推广, 毕竟生意上的伙伴很多
Only a few guests book rooms online. Some business partners of our boss come here often.
B2 / operating idea
客人来到这里很放松, 我们不是主人和客人之间的关系, 更多的是一种朋友关系
Guests are comfortable in here, and we are friends, not just the host and guest.
B2 / operating mode
周末满房, 工作日的话, 开房率最好可能是50%~60%。在旅游区附近, 有这个规律
The occupancy is always 100% in weekends, and as high as 50%-60% in weekdays. It’s a rule for the homestay inns near the scenic area.
B3 / operating idea
客房中没有电视, 没有网络, 就是给顾客一个脱离世俗的环境。住房上面是可以打坐、发呆的地方, 可以看星星
In order to provide a peaceful situation for guests, we didn’t install TV or WiFi in the room. The guest can sit lonely and see stars on the roof.
B4 / operating idea
本来就是闲置房屋, 我们把它租下来, 再改造成为民宿
We rented those abandon houses, and transformed them into a homestay inn.
B4 / operating mode
70% of employees are nearby villagers. Because of a conducted poverty alleviation project, we put local recruits first.
B5 / operating mode
外地客人多, 经常有人会来包场, 整栋酒店包下来
Nonlocal guests are in the majority, and some guests often book the whole hotel.
B5 / marketing
没有怎么营销。因为住的舒适, 客人来玩, 回去会告诉身边的亲戚朋友, 他们就会过来住
We almost have done nothing on marketing. Owing to the satisfying experience, the guest persuades his friends to come here.
B7 / operating mode
顾客大多是家庭或情侣, 都比较年轻。目前深圳、东莞、广州的游客比较多, 本地人少
Most guests are one whole family or young couples, and most of them come from Shenzhen, Dongguan, and Guangzhou.
B7 / operating mode
住进来免景区门票, 景区里面可以随便玩, 这是一个优势
If someone lives here, he has no need to buy the entrance ticket of the scenic area. That’s an advantage.
B8 / operating idea
We plan to build a maker base of rural tourism in this year to attract young people to join us.
B9 / operating idea
我们希望的是引领潮流, 当大家都在做民宿时, 我们已经在做传统文化了
We hope to be ahead of the trend. Now our peers are focusing the homestay itself, we have thought about the traditional culture.
表达人以民宿编号表示。The expresser is represented by the number of homestay inns.
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