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中国生态农业制度的构建

骆世明

骆世明. 中国生态农业制度的构建[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(5): 759-770. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180210
引用本文: 骆世明. 中国生态农业制度的构建[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(5): 759-770. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180210
LUO Shiming. Setting up policy system for eco-agriculture in China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(5): 759-770. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180210
Citation: LUO Shiming. Setting up policy system for eco-agriculture in China[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(5): 759-770. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180210

中国生态农业制度的构建

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180210
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    骆世明, 主要研究方向为农学、农业生态学、生态农业、植物化感、诱导抗性等。E-mail: smluo@scau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S181

Setting up policy system for eco-agriculture in China

More Information
  • 摘要: 中国生态农业的制度构建可以分为指导如何进行生态农业建设的农业绿色行动清单制度和指导如何认定生态农业的生态农业认证制度。生态农业认证制度主要考察农业表现出来的结果是否符合资源匹配、生态友好、环境保护和食品安全等关键判别标准。农业绿色行动清单则是指导开展生态农业建设时,对农业生态系统结构、功能、输入和输出实施有效调控的一系列可选择措施。生态农业制度的构建需要遵循原则清晰、指标简洁、因地制宜、操作容易、激励有效、核查方便的方法。文章论述了生态农业认证制度构建的指标体系、核查方法、信息公开、诚信记录、激励措施、认证程序等,还探讨了农业绿色行动清单制度的分类系统、内容表述、经济支持和运行程序等。
  • 图  1  生态农业建设与生态农业认证的切入点差异

    生态农业建设是对农业生态系统的结构、功能、输入和输出实施有效调控的过程。生态农业认证是对农业的外部性进行评价, 对其经济、社会与生态环境效益进行的综合评估。

    Figure  1.  Differences in prospects between eco-agriculture construction and certifying eco-agriculture

    Building eco-agriculture is the effective control process of structure, function, input and output of agro-ecosystem. Certifying eco-agriculture is the evaluation of externality of agriculture, and comprehensive evaluation of economic, social and ecological benefits of eco-agriculture.

    图  2  适度减少施氮量可以在不减产或少量减产的情况下有效减少水体污染[8]

    尽管图中两条曲线的形状和比例关系会因作物、土壤、灌溉、降水、肥料种类和使用方法有很大差异, 但是关系的总体趋势稳定。日本的“生态农家”认证中就规定化肥施用量要减少20%以上[9]

    Figure  2.  Slightly reduce the amount of nitrogen input can effectively reduce water pollution without production reduction or only with marginal production reduction[8]

    In the figure, the tendency of relationship between two lines is stable though the shapes and proportion of two lines may change due to crop, soil, irrigation, rainfall, type and application method of fertilizer. The certification of "Ecological Farm" in Japan, it is required to reduce fertilizer at least 20%[9].

    图  3  生态农业认证与“三品”认证的主要区别

    Figure  3.  The difference between eco-agriculture certification and the certification for organic food, green food or pollution free food

    图  4  我国现行农业补贴政策结构及其绿色发展方向[12]

    Figure  4.  The structure of agriculture subsidy policy in China and its green development direction[12]

    表  1  生态农业认证自查表

    Table  1.   Self check list for eco-agriculture certification

    目标
    Goal
    一级指标
    First level index
    二级指标
    Second level index
    种植
    Crop production
    圈养
    Captive animal farm
    放牧
    Grazing animal farm
    捕鱼
    Fishing in open water
    养鱼
    Fish raising in pond
    资源匹配
    Resources compatible
    水资源
    Water
    农区用水总量≤区域灌溉总量定额
    Total water consumed in agriculture ≤ total quota for that region.
    耕地资源
    Farmland
    土壤有机质没有下降
    Soil organic matter does not decrease.
    有机肥氮量占施用总氮量30%以上
    Organic nitrogen is more than 30% of total nitrogen applied.
    渔业资源
    Fish
    遵守休渔期规定, 也没有在禁渔区捕鱼, 积极实施增值放流措施
    Observe the no-fishing season, no-fishing zone regulation and actively involve in increasing fish resources.
    捕鱼网具符合规定, 没有使用违规捕鱼方法
    Type of tool for fishing is legal.
    草地资源
    Grassland
    放牧量≤当地规定的最高载畜量
    Number of animal ≤ the max carrying capacity of the grassland.
    其他生物资源
    Other biology resources
    没有发生破坏生态功能区、水源林、湿地、滩涂、半自然植被现象, 注意了自然物种、农家品种和农业生物野生资源保护
    Eco-functional zones, water conservation forest, wetland, beach, semi-natural vegetation are protected. Natural species, local crop and animal varieties and their wild relatives are also conserved.
    环境友好
    Environment friendly
    水体污染
    Water pollution
    作物氮肥施用量少于当地推荐施肥量的20%
    Nitrogen applied is 20% less than local recommended amount for high yield.
    养殖业排水系统有污水存储与处理设备, 且运行正常, 达标排放
    There are storage and treatment facilities for sewage water in animal production farm. They are running normally. Drainage water reaches the required standard.
    湿润区农田有其中一种或多种排水处理体系:生态沟、人工湿地、氧化塘
    In humid area, there are one or more drainage water treatment facility such as eco-ditch, artificial wetland, and oxidation pond.
    水土流失或沙化得到控制, 没有明显的面蚀、沟蚀、风蚀
    Water and soil erosion get controlled. No obvious desertification, no surface erosion, galley erosion and wind erosion.
    气体污染
    Air pollution
    没有违反规定焚烧秸秆和其他杂物
    No violation for regulation about burning straw in open field.
    养殖区与居住区有安全距离或采取有效措施避免臭气污染
    The odor of animal farm gets controlled by separation or collection.
    固体污染
    Solid pollution
    秸秆和其他植物残体得到综合利用
    Solid wastes from farm such as straw are reused.
    畜禽排泄物存储设备良好, 得到循环利用
    Animal waste is well stored and recycled.
    农膜、农药和肥料包装得到回收
    Plastic film, package for pesticide and fertilizer are well collected.
    产品安全
    Product safety
    产品质量
    Quality
    产出的食品达到国家食品安全相关标准(涵盖:致病性微生物、农药残留、兽药残留、重金属、污染物质、食品添加剂等)
    Food product reaches all required national standards for food safety such as pathogen, residue of pesticide and veterinary drugs, heavy metal, pollutant, and food additives.
    农药使用
    Pesticide
    种植业农药使用量:积极使用病虫害综合防控措施, 农药使用量比当地平均使用量减少30%以上
    Integrated pest management methods are adopted. Amount of pesticide used in crop production is 30% less than local average.
    疾病防控
    Animal diseases
    养殖业抗生素和化学药物使用:疾病防控积极采取预防为主方针, 半年的养殖期内使用抗生素与化学药物不超过1次
    Pay great attention for prevention of diseases. The average frequency of using antibiotics and other chemical drugs is less than one time within 6 months.
    饲料标准
    Animal feed
    养殖业使用的饲料含有的激素、重金属、抗生素符合《饲料行业现行国家标准和行业标准》规定要求
    The contents of hormone, heavy metal and antibiotics in animal feed meet the requirement of “National and Industrial Standard for Animal Feed”.
    农场记录
    Farm record
    购销记录
    Buy and sale record
    各种生产资料购买记录(输入), 各种产品销售记录(输出)
    There are records of buying input materials and selling output products.
    生产记录
    Production record
    种植业或养殖业的关键操作时间与方法
    There are records of important operations including time and method used for crop or animal production.
    申请者按照实际经营的范畴, 分别就种植业、畜禽圈养、放牧业、捕鱼作业和养鱼作业在□中填写“是”(用√表示)或者“否”(用×表示), 没有经营的项目不用填写。申报者还要如实在每一个指标对应的支撑材料中尽量收集客观记录, 没有客观依据的情况下也应当填写达标的理由, 以供核查。Applicants fill the table in the cells with □ according to the business scopes, such as crop production, livestock production, pasture husbandry, fishing, aquaculture. The applicants should collect objective records of every index or give reasons if no objective records.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  生态农业认证的不同阶段特点和内容

    Table  2.   Characteristics and details of different stages of eco-agriculture certification

    阶段
    Stage
    开始试点阶段
    Beginning stage for try
    迅速增加阶段
    Rapidly increasing stage
    开始普及阶段
    Popularized stage
    常态阶段
    Normal stage
    参加单位数量
    Number of participants
    少量试点单位
    Small number for trying
    数量在各地迅速增加
    Number increases rapidly
    生态农业与农业绿色行动的社会认可度高, 农业经营者普遍愿意参与
    Eco-agriculture and agricultural green action are highly recognized by the society. Most of the farms willing to participate
    大部分农业经营单位已经成为生态农场, 不符合生态农业标准被认为是违规操作
    Most farms observe the standard of eco-agriculture. Those violate the eco-agriculture standard are considered illegal.
    政府主管层次
    Main level of government in charge
    农业部主管生态农业部门
    Department of eco-agriculture is the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA).
    各省、市、自治区农业部门, 农业部主要起指导和监督职责
    Agriculture bureau of provinces is in charge. The MOA is for direction and monitory.
    各县级农业主管部门, 省级备案和抽查为主
    Agriculture bureau of county is in charge. The bureau in provincial level is mainly for checking and record keeping.
    各个县级农业主管部门, 省级备案和抽查为主
    Agriculture bureau of county is in charge. The bureau in provincial level is mainly for checking and record keeping.
    阶段主要任务
    Main task
    完善政策, 理顺流程, 建立信心
    Formation of policy, and building up confidence
    完善区域规范, 形成区域特色
    Form regionalized policy, and regional characteristics
    完善县级地方规范, 形成县一级特色
    Form county level policy and characteristics
    继续执行行之有效的一套成熟制度
    Continue to implement the matured policies
    政策主要取向
    Policy direction
    主要以激励为主
    Incentive policy mainly
    主要以激励为主
    Incentive policy mainly
    主要以激励为主
    Incentive policy mainly
    激励与处罚相结合
    Incentive and punishment policy
    补贴资金来源
    Financial resources
    每年的项目拨款
    Annual project budget
    纳入稳定的预算支付体系
    Stable financial budget
    纳入稳定的预算支付体系
    Stable financial budget
    纳入稳定的预算支付体系
    Stable financial budget
    政策法规体系
    Policy and legislation system
    依赖原有制度, 并积极探索新的法律体系
    Rely on the previous system and explore the new system actively
    积极制定生态农业相关的法律体系
    Actively make legal system for eco-agriculture
    生态农业政策转化成为稳定的生态农业法规
    Eco-agriculture policy is changed into the stable eco-agriculture law.
    执行成熟的生态农业法规
    Implement mature eco-agriculture law
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  农业绿色行清单框架

    Table  3.   Framework of agriculture green action list

    行动名称
    Name of the action
    行动内容
    Action description
    措施效果
    Result predicted
    行动成本
    Cost of action
    激励措施
    Incentive policy
    资源匹配行动
    Action for resources coupling
    1 资源节约
    Saving resources
    节肥(因土配方施肥、控释肥、水肥一体化)
    Fertilizer saving (fertilization according to soil fertility, control release fertilizer, irrigation with fertilizer)
    节水(滴管、喷灌、覆膜、集水体系)
    Water saving (dripping, spraying, plastic cover, water collecting system)
    节能(节能灶、节能灯)
    Saving energy (energy saving stove, energy saving light)
    节药(无人机施药、新型喷雾器)
    Saving pesticides (new sprayer, small unmanned aerial vehicle
    2 资源替代
    Replacing resources
    有机肥替代化肥Organic fertilizer replacing chemical fertilizer
    绿肥替代化肥Green manure replacing chemical fertilizer
    IPM替代农药(诱虫灯、黄板、性诱剂、陷阱植物、驱赶植物、抗性品种)
    Integrative Pest Management methods (trap lamp, yellow board, sexual hormone, trap plant, pushing plant, resistant variety)
    再生能源替代化石能(风能、太阳能、生物能) Renewable energy replacing non-renewable energy (wind, solar, biomass energy)
    3 资源增值
    Replenishing resources
    封山育林、植树造林Mountain enclosing for forestry, reforestation
    退耕还林、还湖、还湿地Grain for green, grain for water
    草原封育Enclosing grassland for protection
    鱼苗增殖放流、人工鱼礁Fishery production and releasing, artificial reef
    耕地休耕、修复措施Farmland follow and remediation
    生物多样性利用
    Biodiversity use
    1 种植业
    Plant production
    轮间套作Rotation, intercropping, relay cropping
    立体种植(农林复合) Vertical multi-cropping (agroforestry)
    镶嵌种植Mosaic crop arrangement
    果园覆盖Ground mulch in orchard
    天敌利用Use of natural enemies
    微生物制剂Microbiology products
    农家作物品种保护Preservation of local varieties
    2 养殖业
    Animal production
    立体养殖Multi-animal raising
    套养制度Relay grazing system
    轮牧制度Rotation grazing system
    农家畜禽品种保护Conservation of local animal species and varieties
    3 种养共生
    Plant animal co-culture
    稻田养殖Paddy field rice animal co-culture
    林下养殖(果园、茶园、胶园) Forest breeding (in fruit, tea or rubber etc. gardens)
    其他Others
    循环体系构建
    Cycling system design
    1 秸秆残菜果枝
    Straw, waste leave and branch
    直接回田Direct return to field
    堆肥还田Composting for return
    地表覆盖For mulch
    饲料利用Animal feed
    食用菌培养基Growth media for edible fungi
    沼气发酵Biogas fermentation
    生物炭制作Biochar production
    工业利用Industrial raw material
    其他Others
    2 畜禽排泄物
    Animal waste
    堆肥还田Composting
    食用菌培养基Growth media for edible fungi
    生产蚯蚓、蝇蛆For earth worm and fly maggot production
    沼气发酵Biogas generation
    有机无机复合肥生产Organic and inorganic compound fertilizer
    其他Others
    3 水Water 农用水循环利用体系(水处理、储水、提水)
    Water circulation system (water treatment, storage and lifting facilitates)
    4 农膜
    Plastic film
    回收再利用
    Collecting and reusing system
    区域景观布局
    Landscape and regional planning
    1 上游整治
    Upstream management
    水源林建设Development of water conservation forestry
    水土流失拦截体系(绿篱、拦截沟、拦砂坝)
    Checking system for water and soil erosion (Horizontal vegetation belt, ditch and dam)
    2 农田整治
    Farmland configuration
    农田防护林Shelter belt system
    有花蜜源植物带Flower plant for bee
    绿色半自然植被斑块Semi-natural vegetation
    3 村容整治
    Village planning
    村落绿化、美化Greening of village
    传统建筑与历史文化保护Protection of historical architecture and culture
    污染防治行动
    Action for pollution control
    1 污水处理
    Waste water treatment
    生态沟Ecological drainage ditch
    人工湿地Artificial wetland
    氧化塘Oxidation pond
    2 药瓶包装
    Packing material
    单独回收处理Collection and treatment system
    3 生活垃圾
    Garbage
    外运处理Collection and transportation system
    堆肥还田Composting
    沼气发酵Biogas generation
    每一行动内容可用表格、插图和文字描述, 控制在2~4页, 通俗易懂, 全部行动清单可以装订成农业绿色行动指南。The actions maybe described with table, figure or character in 2 to 4 pages, the description should be popular and easy to understand. All the action description is bounded to form the Handbook of Agriculture Green Action.
    下载: 导出CSV
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    [10] Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine. Explanatory Handbook for Cross Compliance Requirements[M]. Dublin:Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, 2016
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    LI D W, QIU H G, LYU Y R, et al. Recent reforms of agricultural subsidy policies in EU and USA:Implications for China[J]. China Soft Science, 2015, (8):12-21 http://www.wanfangdata.com.cn/details/detail.do?_type=perio&id=zgrkx201508003
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-03-01
  • 录用日期:  2018-03-07
  • 刊出日期:  2018-05-01

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