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红河哈尼稻作梯田旅游资源价值空间差异评价

张永勋 闵庆文 李先德

张永勋, 闵庆文, 李先德. 红河哈尼稻作梯田旅游资源价值空间差异评价[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 971-979. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180001
引用本文: 张永勋, 闵庆文, 李先德. 红河哈尼稻作梯田旅游资源价值空间差异评价[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 971-979. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180001
ZHANG Yongxun, MIN Qingwen, LI Xiande. Evaluation of spatial differences in tourism resources values in Honghe Hani Rice Terrace Systems[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 971-979. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180001
Citation: ZHANG Yongxun, MIN Qingwen, LI Xiande. Evaluation of spatial differences in tourism resources values in Honghe Hani Rice Terrace Systems[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 971-979. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180001

红河哈尼稻作梯田旅游资源价值空间差异评价

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180001
基金项目: 

农业部国际交流与合作项目“2018年中国全球重要农业文化遗产保护”和中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项 161005201802-11

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张永勋, 主要从事农业文化遗产地可持续农业与乡村发展、生态经济方面的研究。E-mail:zhangyongxun@caas.cn

    通讯作者:

    闵庆文, 主要从事农业文化遗产保护、资源生态安全与区域可持续发展方面的研究。E-mail:minqw@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 中图分类号: F590

Evaluation of spatial differences in tourism resources values in Honghe Hani Rice Terrace Systems

Funds: 

the International Exchange and Cooperation Project of Ministry of Agriculture of China "Conservation of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) in China in 2018" and the Project of Fundamental Research Funds for Central Non-profit Scientific Institution of China 161005201802-11

More Information
  • 摘要: 红河哈尼稻作梯田拥有丰富的自然与文化景观资源,是全球/中国重要农业文化遗产、世界文化遗产。目前该地区旅游发展水平空间极不平衡,在对其资源进行科学评价的基础上,提出差异化发展的策略是现实需要,也具有示范意义。本研究以哈尼稻作梯田十大片区所在8个乡镇的旅游资源为评价对象,根据自然景观与人文景观特征的差异,从资源特征和影响力两个方面,分别构建评价指标体系(自然景观6个指标,人文景观7个指标),采用层次分析-模糊数学分析方法对其资源价值进行评价。研究结果表明,自然景观价值方面,马鞍底乡、阿得博乡和三猛乡依托国家级保护区资源具有较明显的优势,其中马鞍底乡因景观奇特、规模宏大而优势突出,甲寅镇则因其水域和植物等组合景观而具有自然景观优势;人文景观价值方面,攀枝花乡、新街镇、甲寅镇和宝华镇因梯田而知名度高,民族文化典型而优势明显,其他乡镇也因具有优美的梯田景观、古村落、传统文化等人文景观资源而得到较高评价。哈尼稻作梯田系统的人文景观价值高于自然景观价值,但自然景观资源尚未得到开发,旅游发展水平空间差异巨大。最后,本研究根据各乡镇的资源优势,提出了各有侧重的旅游发展策略。
  • 图  1  研究区位置、研究单元及其空间分布

    Figure  1.  Location of the studied area, studied cells and their distributions

    表  1  哈尼梯田地区各乡镇的主要自然景观

    Table  1.   Main natural landscapes of different towns in Hani Terraced areas

    乡镇Town 自然景观Natural landscape
    甲寅镇Jiayin Town 老博“阿波罗陀”山泉瀑布、后山水库风景区、俄垤水库风景区
    Aboluotuo Waterfall in Laobo Village, Scenic Zone of Houshan Reservoir, Scenic Zone of Edie Reservoir
    宝华镇Baohua Town 落孔尖山、处于原始森林中的清水河、俄垤水库风景区
    Luokongjian Mountain, Qingshui River in primeval forest, Scenic Zone of Edie Reservoir
    新街镇Xinjie Town 东观音山省级自然保护区, 主要保护珍稀动植物及自然植被
    Provincial Natural Reserve of East Guanyin Mountain for rare animals and natural vegetation
    牛角寨乡Niujiaozhai Town 西观音山为省级自然保护区, 主要保护珍稀动植物及自然植被
    Provincial Natural Reserve of West Guanyin Mountain for rare animals and natural vegetation
    攀枝花乡Panzhihua Town
    No
    三猛乡Sanmeng Town 黄连山国家级自然保护区, 主要保护热带季节雨林、山地雨林等和濒危动植物种
    National Natural Reserve of Huanglian Mountain for tropical season rainforest, mountain rainforest and endangered species
    阿得博乡Adebo Town 分水岭国家级自然保护区, 主要保护濒危物种黑长臂猿、蜂猴等及森林生态系统
    National Natural Reserve of Watershed for endangered species such as black gibbon, slow loris and forest ecosystem
    马鞍底乡Ma’andi Town 五台山国家自然保护区(分水岭国家级自然保护区的一部分)、标水岩瀑布、五台山瀑布群、平河高山草原、中华蝴蝶谷、中越两国分界线裂谷景观、漫江河温泉
    National Natural Reserve of Wutai Mountain (one part of National Natural Reserve of Watershed), Biaoshuiyan Waterfall, Waterfall Flock of Wutai Mountain, Pinghe Alpine Steppe, China Butterfly Valley, Rift Valley as national boundary between China and Vietnam, Manjiang River Hot Spring
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  哈尼梯田地区各乡镇的主要人文景观

    Table  2.   Main human landscapes in different towns in Hani Terraced areas

    乡镇Town 人文景观Human landscape
    甲寅镇
    Jiayin Town
    他撒十二龙泉, 州级文物文星阁; 阿撒-他撒梯田(360 hm2); 330年历史的县级瓦渣土司衙门遗址; 作夫村**, 哈尼族村寨甲寅村*; 竹编工艺, 手工铁农具制作工艺, 棕榈编织工艺, 哈尼族和彝族传统文化
    Twelve Dragon Springs in Tasa Village, Wenxing Pavilion belonging prefectural level cultural relic; Asa-tasa Terraces (360 hm2); Wazha Tusi Ruin belonging to county level government office with 330 years history; Zuofu Village**; Jiayin Village* belonging to Hani villages; bamboo weaving craft, handcrafted farm tools made of iron, palm weaving craft, Hani and Yi traditional cultures
    宝华镇
    Baohua Town
    撒玛坝梯田(933 hm2); 有500年历史的县级落孔土司和左能土司; 龙甲哈尼族传统文化保护区; 古彝文; 特色食物梯田红米和嘎他红心鸭蛋; 棕榈编织工艺、哈尼族和彝族传统文化.
    Samaba Terraces (933 hm2); Luokong Tusi and Zuoneng Tusi belonging county level government office with 500 years history; Longjia Hani Traditional Cultural Protection Zone; Ancient Yi character; special food terraced red rice and duck egg with red yolk; palm weaving craft, Hani and Yi traditional cultures
    新街镇
    Xinjie Town
    元阳梯田核心景区多依树景点(667 hm2)和坝达景点(993 hm2), 彩色的龙树坝梯田和蓝色的爱春梯田; 新街抗日保卫战遗址, 州级纳楼土司部分遗址, 新街至个旧和临安的古驿道; 箐口*、大渔塘村*和普高老寨*, 阿者科村**、牛倮普村**; 哈尼族和彝族传统文化
    Duoyishu scenic spot (667 hm2) and Bada scenic spot (993 hm2) of Yuanyang Terraces, color Longshuba Terraces and blue AichunTerraces; Xinjie battle relic against Japan, part of ruins of Nalou Tusi belonging to prefectural level government office, old post road from Xinjie to Gejiu and Lin’an; Jinkou*, Dayutang*, Pugaolaozhai*, Azheke Village**, Niuluopu Village**; Hani and Yi traditional culture
    牛角寨乡
    Niujiaozhai Town
    良心寨-果期-新安所梯田(共1 133 hm2, 包括长满红萍的红色梯田), 欧乐村万亩梯田茶园; 大顺寨傣族古村落; 哈尼族和彝族传统文化(包括果统村委会的哈尼族念经文化), 大顺寨傣族文化
    Liangxinzhai-Guoqi-Xin’ansuo Terraces (total area of 1 133 hm2, including red terraces with red azolla), Ten-thousand-mu tea garden in Oule Village; nationality ancient village of Dashunzhai; Hani and Yi traditional culture (including chant culture in Guotong village), Dashunzhai Dai nationality culture
    攀枝花乡
    Panzhihua Town
    380年历史的保存完整的勐弄土司署; 老虎嘴梯田核心景区; 垭口村**; 勐弄土司古宴、哈尼四季生产调惟一国家级传承人、彝族“尼苏阿鲁”音乐省级传承人、传统刺绣、哈尼族和彝族传统文化
    Government office of Mengnong Tusi preserved completely with 380 years history; Laohuzui Terraces of core scenic spot of Yuanyang Terraces; Yakou Village belonging to Traditional Chinese Village; Mengnong Tusi old banquet, sole national inheritor of Hani four seasons production song, provincial level inheritor of Nisu’alu Song of Yi nationality, traditional embroidery, Hani and Yi traditional culture
    三猛乡
    Sanmeng Town
    腊姑梯田(320 hm2)和桐株梯田(207 hm2); 灯马蘑菇房特色旅游村; 哈尼族腊咪支系文化、由30多种调料调成的哈尼蘸水、传统稻鱼饮食文化
    Lagu Terraces (320 hm2) and Tongzhu Terraces (207 hm2); Dengma Special Village with mushroom house; Lami subline culture of Hani Nationality, Hani cuisine of dipping food in soup with more than 30 ingredients, traditional rice-fish food culture
    阿得博乡
    Adebo Town
    县级文物乐善桥(建于17世纪); 阿得博-高兴寨-水源-菁口梯田(480 hm2); 哈尼族传统节日(“新米节”尤具特色)
    Leshanqiao Bridge belonging to the county level cultural relic built in the 17th century; Adebo-Gaoxingzhai-Shuiyuan-Jingkou Terraces (480 hm2); Hani traditional festival (the most famous is Xinmi Festival)
    马鞍底乡
    Ma’andi Town
    马鞍底营盘山抗日遗址; 拉登-中梁-标水岩梯田(800 hm2)和古茶园; 哈尼族民族文化、瑶族婚礼习俗.
    Yingpan Mountain battle ruins against Japanese invasion in Ma’andi Town; Ladeng-Zhongliang-Biaoshuiyan Terraces (800 hm2) and ancient tea garden, Hani culture and marriage customs of Yao nationality
    **为中国传统村落; *为民族文化村。** means traditional Chinese villages; * means folk custom village.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  哈尼梯田地区自然景观资源可开发价值的评价指标体系

    Table  3.   Assessment index system of developable values of natural landscape resources in Hani Terraced areas

    目标层A
    Target layer
    准则层B
    Criterion layer
    指标C
    Indicator
    评语集Comment
    tm1 tm2 tm3 tm4 tm5
    资源价值(U)
    Resource value
    要素价值(μ1)
    Element value
    可观赏性(x1)
    Appreciation value
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    中等
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    珍奇程度(x2)
    Rare degree
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    中等
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    规模(x3)
    Scale
    很大
    Biggest
    较大
    Bigger
    一般
    Intermediate
    较小
    Smaller
    很小
    Smallest
    多样性(x4)
    Diversity
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    中等
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    影响力(μ2)
    Influence
    知名度(x5)
    Popularity
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    中等
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    等级(x6)
    Grade
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    中等
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  哈尼梯田地区人文景观资源可开发价值的评价指标体系

    Table  4.   Assessment index system of developable values of human landscape resources in Hani Terraced areas

    目标层A
    Target layer
    准则层B
    Criterion layer
    指标层C
    Indicator
    评语集Comment
    tm1 tm2 tm3 tm4 tm5
    资源价值(U)
    Resource value
    要素价值(μ1)
    Element value
    历史年代
    (x1) History
    很古老
    Oldest
    古老
    Older
    一般
    Intermediate
    较新
    Newer

    Newest
    规模大小(x2)
    Scale
    很大
    Biggest
    较大
    Bigger
    一般
    Intermediate
    较小
    Smaller
    很小
    Smallest
    文化价值(x3)
    Cultural value
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    中等
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    艺术价值(x4)
    Art value
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    中等
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    影响力(μ2)
    Influence
    知名度(x5)
    Popularity
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    中等
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    独创性(x6)
    Originality
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    中等
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    保护等级(x7)
    Protection grade
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    中等
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  哈尼梯田地区景观资源开发价值评价指标的权重

    Table  5.   Assessment index weights on developable values of landscape resources in Hani Terraced areas

    自然景观资源Natural landscape resource 人文景观资源Human landscape resource
    影响因素
    Impact factor
    权重
    Weight
    指标
    Indicator
    权重
    Weight
    影响因素
    Impact factor
    权重
    Weight
    指标
    Indicator
    权重
    Weight
    要素价值
    Element value
    0.62 可观赏性Appreciation value 0.36 要素价值
    Element value
    0.54 历史年代History 0.17
    珍奇程度Rare degree 0.23 规模大小Scale 0.24
    规模Scale 0.22 文化价值Cultural value 0.37
    多样性Diversity 0.19 艺术价值Art value 0.22
    影响力
    Influence
    0.38 知名度Popularity 0.56 影响
    力Influence
    0.46 知名度Popularity 0.46
    等级Grade 0.44 独特性Originality 0.30
    保护等级Protection grade 0.24
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  哈尼梯田地区各乡景观资源模糊评价结论向量

    Table  6.   Result vectors qualities of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation on landscapes resources in different towns in Hani Terraced areas

    乡镇
    Town
    自然景观资源Natural landscape resource 人文景观资源Human landscape resource
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    一般
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    很高
    Highest
    较高
    Higher
    一般
    Intermediate
    较低
    Lower
    很低
    Lowest
    甲寅镇Jiayin Town 0.159 0.541 0.263 0.037 0.000 0.392 0.362 0.226 0.020 0.000
    宝华镇Baohua Town 0.044 0.345 0.493 0.118 0.000 0.181 0.538 0.269 0.011 0.000
    新街镇Xinjie Town 0.000 0.050 0.318 0.258 0.374 0.335 0.467 0.198 0.000 0.000
    牛角寨乡Niujiaozhai Town 0.131 0.210 0.446 0.158 0.055 0.168 0.257 0.346 0.229 0.000
    攀枝花乡Panzhihua Town 0.114 0.241 0.306 0.184 0.055 0.443 0.371 0.140 0.046 0.000
    三猛乡Sanmeng Town 0.430 0.504 0.066 0.000 0.000 0.141 0.320 0.373 0.166 0.000
    阿得博乡Adebo Town 0.343 0.531 0.126 0.000 0.000 0.098 0.168 0.576 0.105 0.053
    马鞍底乡Ma’andi Town 0.585 0.403 0.012 0.000 0.000 0.093 0.294 0.440 0.112 0.061
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  哈尼梯田地区各乡镇景观模糊综合评价得分

    Table  7.   Scores of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of landscape resources in different towns of Hani Terraced areas

    甲寅镇
    Jiayin Town
    宝华镇
    Baohua Town
    新街镇
    Xinjie Town
    牛角寨乡
    Niujiaozhai Town
    攀枝花乡
    Panzhihua Town
    三猛乡
    Sanmeng Town
    阿得博乡
    Adebo Town
    马鞍底乡
    Ma’andi Town
    自然景观资源
    Natural landscape resource
    88.043 82.554 65.418 80.702 72.299 93.634 92.175 95.732
    人文景观资源
    Human landscape resource
    91.159 88.844 91.364 82.494 91.887 83.511 80.460 81.276
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2018-01-01
  • 录用日期:  2018-04-08
  • 刊出日期:  2018-07-01

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