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不同培肥方式对土壤有机碳与微生物群落结构的影响

李倩 马琨 冶秀香 杨金娟 牛红霞 马玲

李倩, 马琨, 冶秀香, 杨金娟, 牛红霞, 马玲. 不同培肥方式对土壤有机碳与微生物群落结构的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(12): 1866-1875. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171190
引用本文: 李倩, 马琨, 冶秀香, 杨金娟, 牛红霞, 马玲. 不同培肥方式对土壤有机碳与微生物群落结构的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(12): 1866-1875. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171190
LI Qian, MA Kun, YE Xiuxiang, YANG Jinjuan, NIU Hongxia, MA Ling. Effect of fertilization managements on soil organic carbon and microbial community structure[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(12): 1866-1875. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171190
Citation: LI Qian, MA Kun, YE Xiuxiang, YANG Jinjuan, NIU Hongxia, MA Ling. Effect of fertilization managements on soil organic carbon and microbial community structure[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(12): 1866-1875. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171190

不同培肥方式对土壤有机碳与微生物群落结构的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171190
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 31660132

国家自然科学基金项目 31160104

宁夏高等学校一流学科建设项目 NXYLX2017B05

详细信息
  • †同等贡献者:李倩, 主要研究方向为农作制度理论与技术, E-mail: 940380226@qq.com; 马琨, 主要研究方向为农业生态学, E-mail: makun0411@163.com
  • 中图分类号: S182;S154.3

Effect of fertilization managements on soil organic carbon and microbial community structure

Funds: 

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 31660132

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 31160104

the First-Class Discipline Construction Project of Colleges and Universities in Ningxia NXYLX2017B05

More Information
  • 摘要: 为揭示旱作区耕地土壤有机碳累积规律及其与土壤微生物群落间的相互作用机制,试验采用磷脂脂肪酸(PLFA)指纹图谱及土壤腐殖质形态分组的方法,通过田间定位试验,研究了马铃薯-马铃薯-油用向日葵-马铃薯-油用向日葵轮作模式下,有机、无机肥配施(不施肥、单施化肥、化肥配施牛粪、化肥配施羊粪、化肥配施生物有机肥、化肥配施黄腐酸钾)对土壤有机碳累积、土壤腐殖质形态的影响及其与土壤微生物群落结构间的相互关系。结果表明:在连续培肥5年间,随培肥时间延长,土壤有机碳呈波动性上升趋势。与对照相比,化肥配施牛粪、化肥配施羊粪处理土壤有机碳以年6.61%和8.97%的增长率累积增加,不同处理外源有机碳含量及有机肥种类的差异影响了土壤有机碳的累积速率。化肥配施高量有机肥(化肥+羊粪、化肥+牛粪)处理显著提高了土壤稳结态、松结态腐殖质含量及松结态/紧结态腐殖质的比例,且以PLFA表征的土壤细菌、真菌、放线菌、原生动物、土壤微生物群落总生物量与对照处理间均有显著性差异(P < 0.05)。与对照相比,各施肥处理的革兰氏阳性菌/革兰氏阴性菌(G+/G-)值均呈降低趋势;但不同有机无机相结合的土壤培肥方式对土壤G+/G-的比例没有显著差异。多元分析表明,基于土壤微生物主要类群磷脂脂肪酸含量的排序轴与基于土壤有机碳、腐殖质形态的排序轴之间相关性(P1=0.568,P2=0.611)较好,累积变量在98.69%上揭示不同有机无机培肥措施影响下的土壤微生物群落生物量与环境因子间的相互关系。土壤松结态腐殖质含量与土壤G+/G-比值正相关。外源有机碳的施入促进了土壤紧结态腐殖碳向稳结态、松结态腐殖质转化;较高量外源有机碳施入有助于提升土壤细菌、真菌的生物量。总体而言,土壤微生物群落结构的变化是受有机无机培肥措施所引起的土壤有机碳含量、腐殖质形态变化驱动;化肥配施牛粪和化肥配施羊粪有利于土壤有机碳积累和松结态腐殖质的形成,促进土壤中微生物生物量提高。研究结果可为宁夏中部干旱区土壤合理培肥提供科学依据。
    † Equal contributors
    1)  †同等贡献者:李倩, 主要研究方向为农作制度理论与技术, E-mail: 940380226@qq.com; 马琨, 主要研究方向为农业生态学, E-mail: makun0411@163.com
  • 图  1  不同有机无机肥配施处理对土壤有机碳的影响

    T1、T2、T3、T4、T5、T6分别表示不施肥、单施化肥、化肥+牛粪、化肥+羊粪、化肥+生物有机肥、化肥+黄腐酸钾。不同小写字母表示不同处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 represent blank control, inorganic fertilizer application, combined application of inorganic fertilizer and cow dung, combined application of inorganic fertilizer and sheep manure, combined application of inorganic fertilizer and bioorganic fertilizer, and combined application of inorganic fertilizer and fulvic acid potassium. Different lowercase letters indicate significant differences among different treatments (P < 0.05).

    Figure  1.  Effects of different treatments of combined application of inorganic fertilizer and organic manure on soil organic carbon content

    图  2  不同有机无机肥配施处理下土壤微生物群落结构组成(a)、有机碳及腐殖质形态(b)的多元分析

    图中1、2、3为不施肥处理, 4、5、6为单施化肥处理, 7、8、9为化肥配施牛粪处理, 10、11、12为化肥配施羊粪处理, 13、14、15为化肥配施生物有机肥处理, 16、17、18为化肥配施黄腐酸钾处理。Bacteria:细菌; Fungi:真菌; Actinomycete:放线菌; Protozoa:原生动物; Gram Positive:革兰氏阳性菌; Gram Negative:革兰氏阴性菌; Tightly:紧结态腐殖质; Loosely:松结态腐殖质; Stably:稳结态腐殖质; Carbon:土壤有机碳; Total PLFA:总磷脂脂肪酸。In the figures, 1, 2, 3 are replicates of no fertilization treatments; 4, 5, 6 are replicates of chemical fertilizer treatment; 7, 8, 9 are replicates of treatment of combined application of chemical fertilizer and cow dung; 10, 11, 12 are replicates of treatment of combined application of chemical fertilizer and sheep manure; 13, 14, 15 are replicates of treatment of combined application of chemical fertilizer and bio-organic manure; 16, 17, 18 are replicates of treatment of combined application of chemical fertilizer and fulvic acid potassium. Gram Positive: gram positive bacteria; Gram Negative: gram negative bacteria; Tightly: tightly combined humus; Loosely: loosely combined humus; Stably: stably combined humus; Carbon: soil organic carbon; Total PLFA: total phospholipid fatty acids.

    Figure  2.  Multivariate analysis of soil microbial communities structure based on the phospholipid fatty acids (a) and soil organic carbon, soil humic forms (b) under different treatments of combined application of inorganic fertilizer and organic manure

    表  1  不同有机无机肥配施处理对土壤腐殖质形态及组分数量的影响(2015年)

    Table  1.   Contents and relative mass fractions of different forms of soil humus under different treatments of combined application of inorganic fertilizer and organic manure in 2015

    处理
    Treatment
    含量Content (g·kg-1) 松结态腐殖质/紧结态腐殖质
    Loosely combined humus / tightly combined humus
    重组腐殖质
    Recombinant combined humus (g·kg-1)
    相对质量分数Relative mass fraction (%)
    稳结态腐殖质
    Stably combined humus
    紧结态腐殖质
    Tightly combined humus
    松结态腐殖质
    Loosely combined humus
    稳结态腐殖质
    Stably combined humus
    紧结态腐殖质
    Tightly combined humus
    松结态腐殖质
    Loosely combined humus
    T1 0.24±0.01f 6.04±0.24b 0.40±0.05e 0.07 6.68d 3.59 90.42 5.99
    T2 0.60±0.04e 6.19±0.36b 0.48±0.04e 0.08 7.27d 8.25 85.14 6.60
    T3 1.02±0.02b 7.24±0.39a 1.64±0.02b 0.23 9.90b 10.30 73.13 16.57
    T4 1.26±0.03a 7.91±0.78a 1.84±0.05a 0.23 11.01a 11.44 71.84 16.71
    T5 0.96±0.01c 7.34±0.55a 1.21±0.03c 0.16 9.51b 10.09 77.18 12.72
    T6 0.76±0.05d 6.38±0.33b 1.12±0.04d 0.18 8.26c 9.20 77.24 13.56
      T1、T2、T3、T4、T5、T6分别表示不施肥、单施化肥、化肥+牛粪、化肥+羊粪、化肥+生物有机肥、化肥+黄腐酸钾。同列不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 represent blank control, inorganic fertilizer application, combined application of inorganic fertilizer and cow dung, combined application of inorganic fertilizer and sheep manure, combined application of inorganic fertilizer and bioorganic fertilizer, and combined application of inorganic fertilizer and fulvic acid potassium. Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences among treatments at 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同有机无机肥配施处理对土壤微生物群落结构组成的影响

    Table  2.   Effects of different treatments of combined application of inorganic fertilizer and organic manure on soil microbial communities structure in 2015

    nmol·g-1(dry soil)
    处理
    Treatment
    细菌(B)
    Bacterial
    放线菌
    Actinomycete
    真菌(F)
    Fungal
    原生动物类
    Protozoan
    真菌/细菌
    F/B
    革兰氏阳性菌/革兰氏阴性菌
    G+/G-
    总磷酯脂肪酸
    Total PLFA
    T1 5.02±1.76c 1.07±0.44c 1.79±0.46c 0.00±0.00b 0.61±0.11abc 0.68±0.12a 8.40±2.76d
    T2 10.17±0.97b 2.64±0.50b 3.82±0.02bc 0.05±0.09b 0.51±0.05bcd 0.56±0.05b 17.46±1.47bc
    T3 17.17±1.83a 4.18±0.14a 5.98±0.60b 0.26±0.07a 0.47±0.03d 0.54±0.02b 28.58±3.09a
    T4 18.78±4.16a 4.49±0.67a 8.69±2.87a 0.21±0.04a 0.66±0.07a 0.57±0.01b 33.57±7.74a
    T5 11.67±0.89b 2.85±0.40b 5.00±0.68b 0.07±0.11b 0.62±0.02ab 0.51±0.03b 20.46±1.87b
    T6 7.51±2.67bc 2.09±1.10bc 2.50±0.73c 0.00±0.00b 0.47±0.12cd 0.55±0.03b 12.90±3.59cd
      T1、T2、T3、T4、T5、T6分别表示不施肥、单施化肥、化肥+牛粪、化肥+羊粪、化肥+生物有机肥、化肥+黄腐酸钾。同列不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 represent blank control, inorganic fertilizer application, combined application of inorganic fertilizer and cow dung, combined application of inorganic fertilizer and sheep manure, combined application of inorganic fertilizer and bioorganic fertilizer, and combined application of inorganic fertilizer and fulvic acid potassium. Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences among treatments at 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-12-25
  • 录用日期:  2018-07-20
  • 刊出日期:  2018-12-01

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