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黄土台塬不同土地利用方式土壤CH4通量特征及主控因子分析

刘欢 刘梦云 刘丽雯 赵国庆 张杰 张萌萌 李笑然

刘欢, 刘梦云, 刘丽雯, 赵国庆, 张杰, 张萌萌, 李笑然. 黄土台塬不同土地利用方式土壤CH4通量特征及主控因子分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 937-947. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171124
引用本文: 刘欢, 刘梦云, 刘丽雯, 赵国庆, 张杰, 张萌萌, 李笑然. 黄土台塬不同土地利用方式土壤CH4通量特征及主控因子分析[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 937-947. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171124
LIU Huan, LIU Mengyun, LIU Liwen, ZHAO Guoqing, ZHANG Jie, ZHANG Mengmeng, LI Xiaoran. CH4 flux characteristics and influencing factors in six land use patterns in the Loess Plateau[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 937-947. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171124
Citation: LIU Huan, LIU Mengyun, LIU Liwen, ZHAO Guoqing, ZHANG Jie, ZHANG Mengmeng, LI Xiaoran. CH4 flux characteristics and influencing factors in six land use patterns in the Loess Plateau[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 937-947. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171124

黄土台塬不同土地利用方式土壤CH4通量特征及主控因子分析

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171124
基金项目: 

中国科学院重点部署项目 KFZD-SW-30

详细信息
    作者简介:

    刘欢, 研究方向为资源环境监测与评价。E-mail:1220992824@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    刘梦云, 研究方向为土地资源利用及地理信息系统研究。E-mail:lmy471993@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: S152.6

CH4 flux characteristics and influencing factors in six land use patterns in the Loess Plateau

Funds: 

the Key Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences KFZD-SW-30

More Information
  • 摘要: 土地利用转变会导致土壤微环境及生理生化过程发生改变,继而影响土壤温室气体的产生和排放。目前关于土地利用转变对温室气体通量的研究主要集中于CO2,而对CH4研究甚少。本文以黄土台塬为研究区,重点分析不同土地利用方式的土壤CH4通量特征与其影响因素的关系,并明确其关键影响因子,为预测整个黄土台塬土地利用方式转变对温室效应的贡献提供基础数据。以陕西省永寿县马莲滩林场为研究对象,于2015年4月-2016年3月,采用静态箱-气相色谱法,对耕地、天然草地、灌木林地、乔灌混交林地、乔木林地和果园的CH4通量特征进行研究,并分析土壤CH4通量与土壤温度、地表温度、含水量及全氮的关系。不同土地利用方式土壤CH4平均通量差异显著(P < 0.05),但表现相似的季节变化,呈现夏秋季高于冬春季特征。林地、园地、耕地土壤均为CH4吸收汇,其吸收能力(平均值)为乔灌混交林(51.24 μg·m-2·h-1)>乔木林(44.80 μg·m-2·h-1)>灌木林(31.52 μg·m-2·h-1)>草地(25.89 μg·m-2·h-1)>果园(18.97 μg·m-2·h-1)>耕地(14.89 μg·m-2·h-1)。不同土地利用方式土壤CH4吸收与土壤温度、全氮和地表大气温度均呈正相关;与土壤含水量呈负相关。其土壤表层(0~20 cm)温度是6种土地利用方式土壤CH4吸收的主要影响因素。总之,自然条件下的土壤CH4吸收率明显高于农业土壤CH4吸收率,耕地转变为林地后土壤的CH4吸收能力增强,土壤对减缓温室效应的贡献增大。
  • 图  1  研究区试验期间(2015年4月-2016年3月)气温和降雨量的季节性变化

    Figure  1.  Seasonal variations of air temperature and rainfall during the experiment period (from April 2015 to March 2016) in the study area

    图  2  不同土地利用方式下土壤CH4吸收的季节性变化

    Figure  2.  Seasonal variations of soil CH4 fluxes of different land use types

    图  3  土壤CH4吸收与不同土层土壤全氮含量的相关性

    Figure  3.  Correlation between soil CH4 flux and total nitrogen content in different soil layers

    表  1  不同土地利用方式采样点的基本信息

    Table  1.   Basic information of sample plots in different land use types

    土地利用方式
    Land use type
    样点代表数
    Sample number
    植被类型
    Vegetation type
    平均海拔
    Altitude
    (m)
    地理位置
    Geographical position
    耕地
    Cultivated land
    2 冬小麦Triticum aestivum 1 240 108°05′24.2″E、34°48′22.0″N
    冬小麦T. aestivum 1 267 108°05′36.4″E、34°48′42.7″N
    天然草地
    Natural grassland
    2 白羊草-茭蒿群落
    Community of Bothriochloa ischaemum and Artemisia lavandulaefolia
    1 237 108°05′22.6″E、34°48′20.8″N
    白羊草-茭蒿-铁杆蒿群落
    Community of B. ischaemum, A. lavandulaefolia, and Artemisia gmelini
    1 265 108°05′39.3″E、34°48′31.6″N
    灌木林地
    Shrub land
    3 过熟沙棘林Postmature forest of Hippophae rhamnoides 1 252 108°05′29″E、34°48′21.0″N
    纯沙棘(< 10年) H. rhamnoides forest (younger than 10 years) 1 258 108°05′38.6″E、34°48′31.4″N
    过熟沙棘林Postmature forest of H. rhamnoides 1 246 108°05′25.0″E、34°48′32.2″N
    乔灌混交林地Arbor and shrub land 3 油松、沙棘、刺槐混交林
    Mixed forest of Pinus tabuliformis, H. rhamnoides and Robinia pseudoacacia
    1 248 108°05′19.5″E、34°47′19.3″N
    刺槐、沙棘混交林刺槐
    Mixed forest of R. pseudoacacia and H. rhamnoides
    1 258 108°05′25.4″E、34°47′58.4″N
    白榆、油松、沙棘混交林
    Mixed forest of Ulmus pumila, P. tabuliformis and H. rhamnoides
    1 267 108°05′24.5″E、34°48′20.3″N
    乔木林地
    Arbor land
    4 侧柏纯林Platycladus orientalis forest 1 218 108°05′35.0″E、34°48′11.1″N
    刺槐纯林R. pseudoacacia forest 1 225 108°05′26.9″E、34°47′59.5″N
    油松纯林P. tabuliformis forest 1 250 108°05′38.2″E、34°48′32.6″N
    油松纯林P. tabuliformis forest 1 254 108°05′23.0″E、34°48′20.8″N
    果园
    Orchard
    3 核桃园Juglans regia garden 1 222 108°05′48.0″E、34°47′59.5″N
    核桃园J. regia garden 1 222 108°05′48.0″E、34°47′59.5″N
    核桃园J. regia garden 1 222 108°05′48.0″E、34°47′59.5″N
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同土地利用类型样地不同土层土壤基本性质

    Table  2.   Basic properties of sample plots of different soil layers in different land use types

    土地利用方式
    Land use type
    有机碳Total organic carbon (g·kg-1) 全氮Total nitrogen (g·kg-1) 容重Bulk density (g·cm-3)
    0~5 cm 5~20 cm 0~5 cm 5~20 cm 0~5 cm 5~20 cm
    耕地Cultivated land 9.040±0.010 8.790±1.120 0.926±0.163 0.830±0.160 1.300±0.035 1.252±0.045
    天然草地Natural grassland 34.480±3.760 21.850±6.570 2.495±0.340 1.690±0.510 1.170±0.026 1.220±0.056
    灌木林地Shrub land 24.650±0.780 13.550±3.270 2.078±0.069 1.517±0.460 1.180±0.038 1.230±0.064
    乔灌混交林地Arbor and shrub land 24.030±6.430 10.610±1.270 1.830±0.377 0.765±0.410 1.201±0.054 1.183±0.032
    乔木林地Arbor land 26.540±2.380 15.17±6.520 1.864±0.290 1.210±0.560 1.230±0.080 1.202±0.048
    果园Orchard 9.390±0.139 8.318±0.237 1.003±0.199 0.770±0.030 1.291±0.023 1.261±0.067
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同土地利用方式下土壤CH4通量

    Table  3.   Soil CH4 fluxes of different land use types

    土地利用方式
    Land use type
    变化范围
    Range of variation
    (μg·m-2·h-1)
    平均通量
    Average flux
    (μg·m-2·h-1)
    年通量
    Annual cumulative flux
    (kg·hm-2)
    变异系数
    Coefficient of variation (%)
    耕地Cultivated land -4.30~-32.30 -14.89±8.76e -1.30 58.83
    天然草地Natural grassland -12.77~-49.93 -25.89±12.52cd -2.26 48.36
    灌木林地Shrub land -14.63~-63.52 -31.52±15.89c -2.76 50.41
    乔灌混交林地Arbor and shrub land -27.95~-69.14 -51.24±12.81a -4.48 25.00
    乔木林地Arbor land -23.60~-65.18 -44.80±12.03ab -3.92 26.85
    果园Orchard -4.50~-31.17 -18.97±8.95de -1.66 47.18
    同列不同小写字母表示显著性差异(P < 0.05)。Different lowercase letters in the same column mean significant differences (P < 0.05).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同土地利用方式下土壤CH4吸收(Y)与5 cm和20 cm土壤温度(T)的关系

    Table  4.   Correlation between soil CH4 flux (Y) and soil temperature (T) at 5 cm and 20 cm in different land use types

    土地利用类型
    Land use type
    样本量
    Sample number
    5 cm土温Soil temperature at 5 cm 20 cm土温Soil temperature at 20 cm
    相关方程
    Correlated equation
    R2 相关方程
    Correlated equation
    R2
    耕地Cultivated land 72 Y=1.831+4.889lnT 0.322 Y=12.714+4.928lnT 0.294
    天然草地Natural grassland 72 Y=-3.020+10.257lnT 0.314 Y=13.597+5.291lnT 0.262
    灌木林地Shrub land 108 Y=-16.556+17.155lnT 0.373* Y=14.005+7.650lnT 0.269
    乔灌混交林地Arbor and shrub land 108 Y=5.575+17.078lnT 0.838** Y=31.088+9.080lnT 0.703**
    乔木林地Arbor land 144 Y=-1.144+16.941lnT 0.687** Y=21.878+9.781lnT 0.574**
    果园Orchard 108 Y=-6.114+9.163lnT 0.640** Y=-0.232+7.650lnT 0.558**
    **表示0.01水平极显著相关(R≥0.683 5), *表示0.05水平显著相关(R≥0.552 9)。** indicates significant relation at 0.01 level (R ≥ 0.683 5); * indicates significant correlation at 0.05 level (R ≥ 0.552 9).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同土地利用方式下的土壤CH4吸收(Y)与5 cm和20 cm土壤含水量(W5W20)的关系

    Table  5.   Correlation between soil CH4 flux (Y) and soil moisture at 5 cm (W5) and 20 cm (W20) soil layers in different land use types

    土地利用方式
    Land use type
    样本量
    Sample number
    5 cm含水量Soil water content at 5 cm 20 cm含水量Soil water content at 20 cm
    相关方程
    Correlated equation
    R2 相关方程
    Correlated equation
    R2
    耕地Cultivated land 72 Y=0.233W5+10.794 0.025 Y=-0.386W20+22.426 0.023
    天然草地Natural grassland 72 Y=-0.440W5+38.281 0.166 Y=-0.903W20+46.835 0.213
    灌木林地Shrub land 108 Y=-0.693W5+49.605 0.170 Y=-0.644W20+45.529 0.075
    乔灌混交林地Arbor and shrub land 108 Y=-1.015W5+73.536 0.318* Y=-1.894W20+88.273 0.436*
    乔木林地Arbor land 144 Y=-0.965W5+66.869 0.276 Y=-2.071W20+84.118 0.392*
    果园Orchard 108 Y=0.136W5+16.604 0.009 Y=0.302W20+13.083 0.046
    *表示0.05水平显著(R≥0.552 9)。* indicates significant correlation at 0.05 level (R ≥ 0.552 9).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  不同土地利用方式下的土壤CH4吸收(Y)与地表温度(t)的关系

    Table  6.   Correlation between soil CH4 flux (Y) and surface soil temperature (t) in different land use types

    土地利用方式Land use type 相关方程Correlated equation R2
    耕地Cultivated land Y=0.315t+7.396 0.200
    天然草地Natural grassland Y=0.506t+13.900 0.289
    灌木林地Shrub land Y=0.527t+17.724 0.153
    乔灌混交林地Arbor and shrub land Y=0.991t+30.896 0.645**
    乔木林地Arbor land Y=0.706t+28.967 0.461*
    果园Orchard Y=0.443t+8.925 0.413
    **表示0.01水平极显著相关(R≥0.683 5), *表示0.05水平显著相关(R≥0.552 9)。** indicates significant relation at 0.01 level (R ≥ 0.683 5); * indicates significant correlation at 0.05 level (R ≥ 0.552 9).
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  6种土地利用方式下的土壤CH4通量与环境因子的逐步回归方程

    Table  7.   Regression equations between soil CH4 flux and environmental factors under different land use types

    土地利用方式Land use type 回归方程Regression equation F 显著性Sig. R2
    耕地Cultivated land Y=-71.683+3.162W20+1.580T20 7.321 0.013 0.619
    天然草地Natural grassland Y=13.131+0.930T5 5.375 0.043 0.350
    灌木林地Shrub land Y=8.314+1.247T5 6.628 0.028 0.399
    乔灌混交林地Arbor and shrub land Y=26.365+1.453T5 46.249 0.000 0.822
    乔木林地Arbor land Y=24.834+1.481T20 24.307 0.001 0.709
    果园Orchard Y=-7.350+0.737T20 8.368 0.016 0.523
    T5T20W20分别表示5 cm、20 cm土壤温度和20 cm土壤水分。T5, T20 and W20 are soil temperature at 5 cm and 20 cm, and soil moisture at 20 cm.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-12-03
  • 录用日期:  2018-02-18
  • 刊出日期:  2018-07-01

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