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基于地貌因子的高标准农田建设潜力研究

李春梅 邵景安 郭跃 曹飞 谭少军

李春梅, 邵景安, 郭跃, 曹飞, 谭少军. 基于地貌因子的高标准农田建设潜力研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 1067-1079. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171122
引用本文: 李春梅, 邵景安, 郭跃, 曹飞, 谭少军. 基于地貌因子的高标准农田建设潜力研究[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 1067-1079. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171122
LI Chunmei, SHAO Jing'an, GUO Yue, CAO Fei, TAN Shaojun. Construction potential of high-standard farmland based on landform factors[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 1067-1079. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171122
Citation: LI Chunmei, SHAO Jing'an, GUO Yue, CAO Fei, TAN Shaojun. Construction potential of high-standard farmland based on landform factors[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 1067-1079. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171122

基于地貌因子的高标准农田建设潜力研究

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171122
基金项目: 

重庆市差别化农村土地整治技术研发与示范项目 KJ-2016003

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李春梅, 主要从事土地资源可持续利用研究。E-mail:1379051896@qq.com

    通讯作者:

    邵景安, 主要从事土地利用与生态过程研究。E-mail:shao_ja2003@sohu.com

  • 中图分类号: S281

Construction potential of high-standard farmland based on landform factors

Funds: 

the Differentiation Technology R&D and Demonstration in Rural Land Reclamation of Chongqing, China KJ-2016003

More Information
  • 摘要: 建设高标准农田是科学、高效、可持续利用土地资源的重要方式,建设潜力研究是高标准农田建设的前期基础工作。本文立足重庆市垫江县4个地貌类型区(浅丘低丘区、低中丘区、坪状高丘区、低山及山麓深丘区),借助实地调研、图件和统计数据,从地块尺度构建高标准农田建设潜力评价指标体系,利用熵权法分别计算指标在各地貌类型区的权重,借助综合指数法测算各评价单元建设的潜力得分。结果表明:1)垫江县约80%的基本农田具备建设成高标准农田的潜力,其中:基本具备区占28.57%,稍加整治区占24.13%,全面整治区占26.92%。2)4种地貌类型区建设高标准农田的潜力大小排序为浅丘低丘区>低中丘区≈坪状高丘区>低山及山麓深丘区。3)不同地貌类型区高标准农田建设的限制因子差异较大:浅丘低丘区限制因子是土壤有机质含量、农田防护面积,低中丘区的限制因子是有效土层厚度、土壤有机质含量、灌排条件,坪状高丘区的限制因子是土壤有机质含量、排灌条件、距交通干线距离,低山及山麓深丘区的限制因子是有效土层厚度、土壤有机质含量、pH、排灌条件、农田机耕能力和田块到居民点距离。未来建设高标准农田时,要因地制宜,布设工程应紧密结合不同地貌类型区限制因子和当地农业产业发展方向,聚焦主导产业消除或降低限制因子的作用,进行差别化高标准农田建设。
  • 图  1  垫江县位置(a)、地形地貌(b)及基本农田所属地貌类型区分布(c)

    Figure  1.  Location (a), landform (b) and landform regionalization of farmland (c) of Dianjiang County

    图  2  垫江县4种地貌类型区[浅丘低丘区(a)、低中丘区(b)、坪状高丘区(c)和低山及山麓深丘区(d)]高标准农田建设潜力指标得分频率统计图

    Figure  2.  Score frequencies of high-standard farmland construction potentiality indexes of four landforms (a: shallow and low hill area; b: low middle hill area; c: high hill with flat area; d: low mountain and deep hill) in Dianjiang County

    图  3  垫江县不同地貌类型区高标准农田建设潜力评价得分

    Figure  3.  Evaluation scores of high-standard farmland construction potentiality of different landform areas in Dianjiang County

    表  1  垫江县现有耕地坡度统计表

    Table  1.   Statistical table of slop of existing farmland in Dianjiang County

    耕地坡度Cultivated land slope (°)
    ≤2 2~6 6~15 15~25 > 25
    占比Proportion (%) 8 15 45 19 13
    耕地类型Cultivated land type
    梯田
    Terraces
    坡地
    Hillside field
    梯田
    Terrace
    坡地
    Hillside field
    梯田
    Terrace
    坡地
    Hillside field
    梯田
    Terrace
    坡地
    Hillside field
    占比Proportion (%) 14 1 19 26 1 18 1 12
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  垫江县4种地貌类型区划分依据及其分布

    Table  2.   Dividing basis and distribution of four landform types in Dianjiang County

    地貌
    Landform
    划分依据Division basis 主要分布区域
    Mainly distribution area
    海拔
    Altitude (m)
    相对高差
    Relative height difference (m)
    浅丘低丘区
    Shallow and low hill area
    < 500 < 50 高滩河沿岸、明月山沿线以东
    Gaotan River coast, east of Mountain Moon
    低中丘区
    Low middle hill area
    < 500 50~100 垫江县北部、鹤大台地周围区域
    North Dianjiang County, area around the Heda Tableland
    坪状高丘区
    High hill with flat area
    < 500 > 100 鹤大台地Heda Tableland
    低山及山麓深丘区
    Low mountain and deep hill area
    500~1 000 200~500 明月山、南华山、黄草山、大梨山山麓
    Mountain Moon, Mountain Nanhua, Mountain Huangcao, foothill of Mountain Dali
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  高标准农田建设潜力评价指标体系

    Table  3.   Assessment index system of construction potentiality of high-standard farmland

    目标层
    Target layer
    准则层
    Rule layer
    指标层
    Index layer
    指标类型
    Index type
    处理方法
    Processing method
    高标准农田框架指标
    Indicators of high-standard basic farmland framework
    土壤条件
    Soil condition
    C1有效土层厚度Effective soil layer thickness (cm) +
    C2土壤有机质含量Soil organic matter content (g·kg-1) +
    C3表层土壤质地Top soil texture 适宜
    Suitable
    C4 pH 适宜
    Suitable
    耕作便利条件
    (立地条件)
    Tillage factor
    (site condition)
    C5田块坡度Field slope (°) - DEM提取DEM extract
    C6集中连片度Aggregation index + 缓冲区分析-数据融合
    Buffer analysis and data fusion data fusion
    C7排灌条件Irrigation and drainage condition +
    C8田间道路通达度Rode accessibility (%) + Near分析Near analysis
    C9田块到居民点距离Distance of field to residential area (m) - Near分析Near analysis
    社会经济条件
    Socio-economic condition
    C10田块到交通干线距离Distance of field to main road (m) - 缓冲区分析Buffer analysis
    C12农民人均GDP GDP per farmer (¥ ) +
    C13农田机耕能力Farmland tractor-ploughing ability +
    农田防护条件
    Farmland protection condition
    C14林网密度Wood density 适宜
    Suitable
    C15农田防护面积Farmland protective acreage (%) +
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  高标准农田建设潜力评价指标分级分值标准

    Table  4.   Grading scores standards of assessment indexes of construction potentiality of high-standard farmland

    指标
    Index
    指标分值Index score
    40 60 80 100
    C1 (cm) < 40 40~60 60~80 ≥80
    C2 (g·kg-1) < 1.0 1.0~1.5 1.5~2.0 ≥2.0
    C3 砾质土Gravelly soil 黏土Clay 砂土Sandy soil 壤土Loam
    C4 ≤5.5或≥9.5 5.5~6.0或9.0~9.5 6.0~6.5或8.5~9.0 6.5~8.5
    C5 (°) > 15° 10°~15° 5°~10° ≤5°
    C6 ≤5 5~7 7~10 > 10
    C7 < 70 70~80 80~90 ≥90
    C8 (%) < 95 95~98 98~100 100
    C9 (m) ≥1 500 1 000~1 500 500~1 000 < 500
    C10 (m) ≥2 000 1 500~2 000 1 000~1 500 < 1 000
    C11 ≥5 000 2 000~5 000 1 000~2 000 < 1 000
    C12 (¥) < 800 800~1 200 1 200~1 500 ≥1 500
    C13 差Poor 中Medium 良Good 优Excellent
    C14 紧密型Close type 舒透型Breathable type 透风型Drafty type
    C15 (%) ≤50 50~70 70~90 > 90
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  不同地貌类型区高标准农田建设潜力评价指标的权重

    Table  5.   Weights of assessment indexes of construction potentiality of high-standard farmland for different landform areas

    指标
    Index
    浅丘低丘区
    Shallow and low hill area
    低中丘区
    Low middle hill area
    坪状高丘区
    High hill with flat area
    低山及山麓深丘区
    Low mountain and deep hill area
    土壤条件
    Soil condition
    C1 0.061 0.048 0.001 0.049
    C2 0.191 0.101 0.028 0.071
    C3 0.071 0.179 0.061 0.124
    C4 0.019 0.011 0.060 0.011
    耕作便利条件
    Tillage factor
    C5 0.020 0.013 0.061 0.013
    C6 0.004 0.003 0.060 0.004
    C7 0.308 0.393 0.063 0.469
    C8 0.005 0.012 0.083 0.010
    C9 0.001 0.010 0.083 0.005
    社会经济条件
    Location condition
    C10 0.032 0.049 0.086 0.030
    C11 0.020 0.018 0.082 0.027
    C12 0.002 0.002 0.082 0.003
    C13 0.036 0.034 0.084 0.092
    农田防护条件
    Farmland protection conditions
    C14 0.112 0.002 0.083 0.001
    C15 0.116 0.126 0.083 0.090
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  6  垫江县高标准农田建设潜力划分标准及划分结果

    Table  6.   Division standard and result of high-standard farmland construction potentiality in Dianjiang County

    分值
    Score value
    高标准农田建设潜力分区
    Subdivision of potentiality of high-standard farmland construction
    面积
    Area (hm2)
    比例
    Proportion (%)
    ≥80 A1基本具备区
    Subdivision basically meeting the construction criteria
    22 985.71 28.57
    70~80 A2稍加整治区
    Subdivision needing improvement
    19 413.55 24.13
    60~70 A3全面整治区
    Subdivision needing comprehensive renovation
    21 658.22 26.92
    < 60 A4不适宜区
    Not suitable area
    16 396.53 20.38
    合计Total 80 454.00 100.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  7  垫江县不同地貌类型区高标准农田建设潜力统计表

    Table  7.   Statistical table of high-standard farmland construction potentiality in each landform area in Dianjiang County

    潜力分区
    Subdivision of potentiality
    浅丘低丘区
    Shallow and low hill area
    低中丘区
    Low middle hill area
    坪状高丘区
    High hill with flat area
    低山及山麓深丘区
    Low mountain and deep hill area
    面积
    Area (hm2)
    比例
    Proportion (%)
    面积
    Area (hm2)
    比例
    Proportion (%)
    面积
    Area (hm2)
    比例
    Proportion (%)
    面积
    Area (hm2)
    比例
    Proportion (%)
    A1 14 697 46.36 6 223 22.24 545 4.09 1 507 20.25
    A2 4 462 14.07 5 962 21.31 8 529 64.00 475 6.38
    A3 7 691 24.26 8 751 31.27 4 068 30.53 1 144 15.37
    A4 4 854 15.31 7 046 25.18 184 1.38 4 316 58.00
    合计
    Total
    31 704 100.00 27 982 100.00 13 326 100.00 7 442 100.00
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  8  垫江县各地貌类型区高标准农田建设的优劣因子

    Table  8.   Advantage and limiting factors in each landform area of high-standard farmland construction in Dianjiang County

    地貌类型区
    Landform type
    优势因子
    Advantage factor
    限制因子
    Limiting factor
    浅丘低丘区
    Shallow and low hill area
    表层土壤质地、pH、田块坡度、田间道路通达度、田块到居民点距离、林网密度
    Surface soil texture, pH, field slope, rode accessibility, distance of field to residential area, forest density
    土壤有机质含量、农田防护面积
    Soil organic matter content, farmland protective acreage
    低中丘区
    Low middle hill area
    表层土壤质地、pH、田块坡度、农田防护面积
    Surface soil texture, pH, field slope, farmland protective acreage
    有效土层厚度、土壤有机质含量、排灌条件
    Effective soil layer thickness, soil organic matter content, irrigation and drainage condition
    坪状高丘区
    High hill with flat area
    表层土壤质地、田块坡度、农田防护面积
    Surface soil texture, field slope, farmland protective acreage
    土壤有机质含量、排灌条件、距交通干线距离
    Soil organic matter content, irrigation and drainage condition, distance of field to main road
    低山及山麓深丘区
    Low mountain and deep hill area
    表层土壤质地、农田防护面积
    Surface soil texture, farmland protective acreage
    有效土层厚度、土壤有机质含量、pH、排灌条件、农田机耕能力、田块到居民点距离
    Effective soil layer thickness, soil organic matter content, pH, irrigation and drainage condition, farmland tractor- ploughing ability, distance of field to residential area
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-12-03
  • 录用日期:  2018-03-07
  • 刊出日期:  2018-07-01

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