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长期保护性耕作对丛枝菌根真菌多样性的影响

张贵云 张丽萍 魏明峰 刘珍 范巧兰 吕贝贝 姚众 柴跃进

张贵云, 张丽萍, 魏明峰, 刘珍, 范巧兰, 吕贝贝, 姚众, 柴跃进. 长期保护性耕作对丛枝菌根真菌多样性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 1048-1055. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171119
引用本文: 张贵云, 张丽萍, 魏明峰, 刘珍, 范巧兰, 吕贝贝, 姚众, 柴跃进. 长期保护性耕作对丛枝菌根真菌多样性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 1048-1055. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171119
ZHANG Guiyun, ZHANG Liping, WEI Mingfeng, LIU Zhen, FAN Qiaolan, LYU Beibei, YAO Zhong, CHAI Yuejin. Effect of long-term conservation tillage on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 1048-1055. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171119
Citation: ZHANG Guiyun, ZHANG Liping, WEI Mingfeng, LIU Zhen, FAN Qiaolan, LYU Beibei, YAO Zhong, CHAI Yuejin. Effect of long-term conservation tillage on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 1048-1055. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171119

长期保护性耕作对丛枝菌根真菌多样性的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171119
基金项目: 

山西省自然科学基金项目 2014011029-3

山西省农业科学院博士基金项目 YBSJJ1405

山西省重点研发计划项目 201703D321009-3

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张贵云, 主要从事植物营养学和菌根学研究。E-mail:guiyunzhang@126.com

    通讯作者:

    张丽萍, 主要从事农作物病虫害综合治理和植物营养学研究。E-mail:lipingzh2006@126.com

  • 中图分类号: S34

Effect of long-term conservation tillage on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity

Funds: 

the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Provicne, China 2014011029-3

the Doctor Fund Project of Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China YBSJJ1405

the Key Research and Development Project of Shanxi Provicne, China 201703D321009-3

More Information
  • 摘要: 为了明确我国北方干旱地区长期保护性耕作以及深松对丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)多样性的影响,笔者于2014年在山西省临汾市连续22年实施保护性耕作的长期定位试验基地,针对免耕覆盖(NTS)、深松免耕覆盖(SNTS)及传统耕作(TT)3种处理方式,进行了不同耕作条件下土壤AMF物种丰度、孢子密度、Shannon多样性指数以及AMF侵染率等因素的比较研究。结果显示,长期保护性耕作(NTS和SNTS)共分离鉴定出AMF 7属9种,其中根孢囊霉属(Rhizophagus)和斗管囊霉属(Funneliformis)各2种,球囊霉属(Glomus)、近明球囊霉属(Claroideoglomus)、无梗囊霉属(Acaulospora)、硬囊霉属(Sclerocystis)和隔球囊霉属(Septoglomus)各1种;而传统耕作(TT)共分离鉴定出AMF 6属8种,没有检测到无梗囊霉属。NTS、SNTS和TT处理在不同土层的AMF优势种基本一致,0~40 cm土层为摩西斗管囊霉(Fu.mosseae)和变形球囊霉(G.versiforme),40~80 cm土层为摩西斗管囊霉、变形球囊霉和聚丛根孢囊霉(Rh.aggregatum),80~120 cm土层为聚丛根孢囊霉,120 cm土层以下只有NTS和SNTS处理中存在聚丛根孢囊霉,说明保护性耕作措施促进了AMF向土壤深层发展。NTS和SNTS处理在同一土层的AMF物种丰度、孢子密度和Shannon多样性指数均高于TT处理,SNTS处理高于NTS处理。同一耕作措施不同土层的AMF物种丰度、孢子密度和Shannon多样性指数均随土层加深而逐渐降低;NTS和SNTS处理在小麦各生育期的丛枝侵染率和孢子密度均高于TT处理;各处理在小麦拔节期的AMF侵染率最高,分别为14.9%、16.1%和10.6%,而在收获期的土壤孢子密度最高,分别为111.7个·(100g)-1、125.0个·(100g)-1和90.3个·(100g)-1。研究认为,长期免耕覆盖、尤其深松免耕覆盖,提高了AMF多样性。该研究结果可为中国北方旱作农田生态系统中AMF自然潜力的充分发挥,以及保护性耕作技术的合理应用提供科学依据。
  • 表  1  不同耕作方式土壤的理化性状

    Table  1.   Soil physical-chemical characteristics under different tillage treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    pH 有机质
    Organic matter
    (g·kg-1)
    全氮
    Total N
    (g·kg-1)
    碱解氮
    Alkali-hydrolysis N (mg·kg-1)
    速效磷
    Available P
    (mg·kg-1)
    速效钾
    Available K
    (mg·kg-1)
    土壤容重
    Soil bulk density (g·cm-3)
    0~10 cm 10~20 cm
    TT 8.48±0.02a 14.56±0.63b 0.75±0.01b 57.74±2.40b 49.34±1.48b 214.35±9.82b 1.29±0.31 1.35±0.40
    NTS 8.35±0.01b 18.23±0.43b 1.02±0.01a 91.00±7.00a 63.60±3.28a 362.73±17.66a 1.21±0.26 1.47±0.42
    SNTS 8.36±0.01b 23.82±1.76a 1.10±0.03a 86.75±2.83a 74.21±1.20a 318.16±15.22a 1.19±0.22 1.45±0.42
      NTS:免耕覆盖; SNTS:深松免耕覆盖; TT:传统耕作。同列数字后不同小写字母表示处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。TT: traditional tillage; NTS: no-till with straw mulching; SNTS: no-till with straw mulching after subsoiling. Different lowercase letters in the same column indicate significant differences at 0.05 level among different treatments.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  小麦成熟期不同耕作措施下不同土层丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)种类分布及相对多度

    Table  2.   Species distribution and relative abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in different soil depths at wheat maturation period under different tillage treatments

    %
    土层深度
    Soil depth
    (cm)
    无梗囊霉属
    Acaulospora
    近明球囊霉属
    Claroideoglomus
    斗管囊霉属
    Funneliformis
    球囊霉属
    Glomus
    根孢囊霉属
    Rhizophagus
    硬囊霉属
    Sclerocystis
    隔球囊霉属
    Septoglomus
    细凹无梗囊霉
    Ac. scrobiculata
    幼套近明球囊霉
    Cl. etunicatum
    摩西斗管囊霉
    Fu. mosseae
    地斗管囊霉
    Fu. geosporus
    变形球囊霉
    G. versiforme
    聚丛根孢囊霉
    Rh. aggregatum
    根内根孢囊霉
    Rh. intraradices
    弯丝硬囊霉
    Sc. sinuosus
    缩隔球囊霉
    Se. constrictum
    NTS SNTS TT NTS SNTS TT NTS SNTS TT NTS SNTS TT NTS SNTS TT NTS SNTS TT NTS SNTS TT NTS SNTS TT NTS SNTS TT
    0~20 0.3bB 0.5cA 0.0aC 9.8aA 8.8aB 6.9aC 32.2aA 31.3aA 32.0aA 3.4aB 3.6bB 5.6bA 30.3aA 27.2aB 31.4aA 10.1dAB 12.8eA 7.8cB 10.4aB 9.3aC 12.4aA 0.6bB 1.4cA 0.2aC 2.9bC 5.1aA 3.7aB
    20~40 0.3bB 0.5cA 0.0aC 9.8aA 8.8aB 6.9aC 32.2aA 31.3aA 32.0aA 3.4aB 3.6bB 5.6bA 30.3aA 27.2aB 31.4aA 10.1dAB 12.8eA 7.8cB 10.4aB 9.3aC 12.4aA 0.6bB 1.4cA 0.0bC 2.9bC 5.1aA 3.7aB
    40~60 0.6aB 1.7aA 0.0aC 7.2bA 3.8bC 5.6bB 24.3bA 24.6bA 25.7bA 4.0aB 6.1aA 6.5aC 24.1bA 23.9bA 19.5bB 25.8cA 27.9dA 32.4bB 8.3bA 8.1bA 7.3bB 1.3aB 3.0aA 0.0bC 4.4aA 4.1bA 3.0bB
    60~80 0.0cB 1.2bA 0.0aB 7.2bA 2.7cC 5.6bB 24.3bA 17.7cB 25.7bA 4.0aA 4.4bA 6.5aB 24.1bA 23.2bA 19.5bB 25.8cB 39.8cA 32.4bC 8.3bA 5.8cB 7.3bC 1.3aB 2.2bA 0.0bC 4.4aA 3.0cB 3.0bC
    80~100 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0aA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 18.3cB 16.5cB 24.0bA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0c B 8.5cA 0.0c B 72.4bA 66.0bB 76.0aA 9.3bA 9.0aA 0.0cB 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA
    100~120 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0aA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 18.3cB 16.5cB 25.0bA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0c B 8.5cA 0.0c B 72.3bB 66.0bC 75.0aA 9.3bA 9.0aA 0.0cB 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA
    120~140 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0aA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 100.0aA 100.0aA 0.0aB 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA
    140~160 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0aA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0eB 100.0aA 0.0dB 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA
    160~180 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0aA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0eA 0.0fA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA
    180~200 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0aA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0eA 0.0fA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0bA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0cA
      NTS:免耕覆盖; SNTS:深松免耕覆盖; TT:传统耕作。同列不同小写字母表示不同土层间差异显著(P < 0.05);同行不同大写字母表示同一土层不同处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。NTS: no-till with straw mulching; SNTS: no-till with straw mulching after subsoiling; TT: traditional tillage. Different small letters in the same column mean significant differences among different soil layers in the same treatment at P < 0.05, and different capital letters in the same row mean significant differences in the same soil layer among different treatments at P < 0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  小麦成熟期不同耕作措施下丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)物种丰度、孢子密度和多样性指数

    Table  3.   Species richness, spore density and diversity index of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in different soil depths at wheat maturation period under different tillage treatments

    土样深度
    Soil depth (cm)
    物种丰度
    Species richness
    孢子密度
    Spore density [spores·(100g)-1(soil)]
    Shannon多样性指数
    Shannon diversity index
    NTS SNTS TT NTS SNTS TT NTS SNTS TT
    0~20 7.3aA 7.7aA 5.3aB 111.7aAB 125.0aA 90.3aC 1.79aA 1.83aA 1.67aB
    20~40 7.0aA 7.3aA 5.0aB 47.7bAB 57.3bA 43.7bC 1.75aA 1.77abA 1.65aA
    40~60 3.7bB 4.7bA 3.0bC 22.3cAB 28.7cA 15.7cC 1.69aA 1.77abA 1.08bB
    60~80 3.3bB 4.0bA 2.3cC 11.0dA 11.7dA 7.3dB 1.69aA 1.65bA 1.08bB
    80~100 2.7cB 3.3cA 1.7dC 7.7eAB 12.0dA 4.3eB 0.77bB 1.0cA 0.55cC
    100~120 1.0dA 1.0dA 0.7eB 4.7efB 11.0dA 1.7eB 0.77bB 1.0cA 0.54cC
    120~140 0.7dA 1.0dA 0.0fA 2.3fgAB 4.0eA 0.0eB 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0dA
    140~160 0.0eA 0.7dA 0.0fA 0.0gA 3.0efA 0.0eA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0dA
    160~180 0.0eA 0.0eA 0.0fA 0.0gA 0.0fA 0.0eA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0dA
    180~200 0.0eA 0.0eAS 0.0fA 0.0gA 0.0fA 0.0eA 0.0cA 0.0dA 0.0dA
      NTS:免耕覆盖; SNTS:深松免耕覆盖; TT:传统耕作。同列不同小写字母表示不同土层间差异显著(P < 0.05);同行不同大写字母表示同一土层不同处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。NTS: no-till with straw mulching; SNTS: no-till with straw mulching after subsoiling; TT: traditional tillage. Different small letters in the same column mean significant differences among different soil layers in the same treatment at P < 0.05, and different capital letters in the same row mean significant differences in the same soil layer among different treatments at P < 0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  不同耕作措施下小麦不同生育期丛枝菌根真菌(AMF)侵染率和土壤孢子密度

    Table  4.   Colonization rate and soil spore density of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under different tillage treatment at different growth periods of wheat

    生育期
    Growing period
    AMF侵染率Colonization rate of AMF (%) 孢子密度Spore density [spores∙(100g)-1(soil)]
    NTS SNTS TT NTS SNTS TT
    苗期Seedling 6.6bA 7.6bA 6.1bA 76.7cA 82.0dA 46.0cB
    返青期Returning green 7.2bAB 8.6bA 6.3bB 70.7cA 80.7dA 43.7cB
    拔节期Jointing 14.9aAB 16.1aA 10.6aB 81.3cAB 94.3cA 53.3cC
    灌浆期Filling 13.8aAB 15.6aA 10.1aB 97.7bA 108.7bA 73.0bB
    成熟期Maturity 0.0cA 0.0cA 0.0cA 111.7aAB 125.0aA 90.3aC
      NTS:免耕覆盖; SNTS:深松免耕覆盖; TT:传统耕作。同列不同小写字母表示不同土层间差异显著(P < 0.05);同行不同大写字母表示同一土层不同处理间差异显著(P < 0.05)。NTS: no-till with straw mulching; SNTS: no-till with straw mulching after subsoiling; TT: traditional tillage. Different small letters in the same column mean significant differences among different soil layers in the same treatment at P < 0.05, and different capital letters in the same row mean significant differences in the same soil layer among different treatments at P < 0.05.
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-12-01
  • 录用日期:  2018-02-14
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