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黄土旱塬黑垆土长期肥料试验土壤磷素和磷肥效率的演变特征

王淑英 樊廷录 丁宁平 赵刚 张建军 李尚中 王磊 党翼 程万莉 唐小明

王淑英, 樊廷录, 丁宁平, 赵刚, 张建军, 李尚中, 王磊, 党翼, 程万莉, 唐小明. 黄土旱塬黑垆土长期肥料试验土壤磷素和磷肥效率的演变特征[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 1038-1047. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171002
引用本文: 王淑英, 樊廷录, 丁宁平, 赵刚, 张建军, 李尚中, 王磊, 党翼, 程万莉, 唐小明. 黄土旱塬黑垆土长期肥料试验土壤磷素和磷肥效率的演变特征[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 1038-1047. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171002
WANG Shuying, FAN Tinglu, DING Ningping, ZHAO Gang, ZHANG Jianjun, LI Shangzhong, WANG Lei, DANG Yi, CHENG Wanli, TANG Xiaoming. Change characteristics of soil phosphorus and phosphorus fertilizer efficiency in Black Loessial soil of dryland in the Loess Plateau under long-term fertilization[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 1038-1047. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171002
Citation: WANG Shuying, FAN Tinglu, DING Ningping, ZHAO Gang, ZHANG Jianjun, LI Shangzhong, WANG Lei, DANG Yi, CHENG Wanli, TANG Xiaoming. Change characteristics of soil phosphorus and phosphorus fertilizer efficiency in Black Loessial soil of dryland in the Loess Plateau under long-term fertilization[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 1038-1047. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171002

黄土旱塬黑垆土长期肥料试验土壤磷素和磷肥效率的演变特征

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.171002
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2016YFD0300110

公益性行业(农业)科研专项 201303104

公益性行业(农业)科研专项 201503124

国家玉米产业技术体系兰州综合试验站项目 CARS-02-60

“十二五”农村领域国家科技计划课题 2013AA102902

详细信息
    作者简介:

    王淑英, 主要研究方向为旱地水土资源高效利用。E-mail:wang_shying@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S153.6+1

Change characteristics of soil phosphorus and phosphorus fertilizer efficiency in Black Loessial soil of dryland in the Loess Plateau under long-term fertilization

Funds: 

the National Key Research and Development Project of China 2016YFD0300110

the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China 201303104

the Special Fund for Agro-scientific Research in the Public Interest of China 201503124

the Project of Lanzhou Experimental Station on Maize of China Agriculture Research System CARS-02-60

the National Technology R&D Program on Rural Areas of China 2013AA102902

More Information
  • 摘要: 依托甘肃平凉定位试验(1979年-),分析长期不同施肥下土壤磷素和磷肥效率的演变特征,为黄土旱塬雨养农田合理施用磷肥提供参考。试验包括6个处理:不施肥(CK)、单施氮肥(N)、氮磷配合(NP)、秸秆还田加氮和隔年施磷(SNP)、单施农家肥(M)和农家肥加氮磷(MNP),种植制度为4年冬小麦-2年春玉米的一年1熟轮作制。结果表明,试验进行38年后,长期无磷投入(CK、N)处理耕层土壤全磷和Olsen-P含量及磷活化系数比试验开始时下降,而施磷处理(NP、SNP、M和MNP)土壤全磷分别增加22.8%、14.0%、38.6%和56.1%,Olsen-P相应提高99.1%、48.4%、206.4%和375.6%,磷活化系数分别是开始时的1.7倍、1.3倍、2.2倍和3.1倍。随试验年限延长,CK处理耕层土壤全磷基本不变;N和SNP耕层土壤全磷呈下降趋势,每年下降速率为1.9 mg·kg-1和2.6 mg·kg-1;NP、M和MNP处理呈增加趋势,每年增加速率分别为1.2 mg·kg-1、1.9 mg·kg-1和2.8 mg·kg-1。CK和N处理Olsen-P呈下降趋势,年下降速率分别为0.03 mg·kg-1和0.09 mg·kg-1;NP、SNP、M和MNP处理土壤Olsen-P呈增加趋势,年增量分别为0.29 mg·kg-1、0.24 mg·kg-1、0.46 mg·kg-1和0.89 mg·kg-1。作物产量与耕层土壤Olsen-P含量呈极显著正相关(小麦R2=0.116 9,n=132;玉米R2=0.332 4,n=54)。施磷处理(NP、SNP、M和MNP)玉米的磷肥回收率、利用率和农学效率大于小麦,而生理效率小麦大于玉米;各处理磷肥效率4个指标的大小顺序均为SNP > NP > MNP > M,玉米磷肥效率的4个指标都随试验年限延长而提高。M较MNP处理P投入减少了14.2%,小麦、玉米磷素效率降低14.3%~69.5%、0.8%~75.5%。总之,有机无机结合是黄土旱塬区培肥地力、提高作物产量和资源利用效率的施肥措施。
  • 图  1  1978—2016年长期不同施肥处理下土壤全磷含量变化

    Figure  1.  Changes of soil P contents under different long-term fertilization treatments from 1978 to 2016

    图  2  1978—2016年长期不同施肥处理下土壤有效磷含量变化

    Figure  2.  Changes of soil Olsen-P contents under different long-term fertilization treatments from 1978 to 2016

    图  3  1978—2016年长期不同施肥处理下土壤磷活化系数(PAC)的变化

    Figure  3.  Changes of soil P active coefficients (PAC) under different long-term fertilization treatments from 1978 to 2016

    图  4  作物产量与耕层土壤有效磷含量关系

    Figure  4.  Relationship between crop yield and soil Olsen-P content in 0-20 cm soil layer

    表  1  1979—2016年各试验处理全年施肥量和磷素养分输入量

    Table  1.   Annual application amounts of fertilizes and P inputs from different sources of different treatments during 1979-2016

    处理
    Treatment
    施化肥氮量
    Chemical N application rate
    [kg(N)·hm-2]
    施化肥磷量
    Chemical P application rate
    [kg(P2O5)·hm-2)
    秸秆/农家肥量
    Straw/farm manure amount
    (t·hm-2)
    磷素输入量P input (kg·hm-2)
    有机物料
    Farm manure/straw
    化肥
    Chemical fertilizer
    总量
    Total amount
    CK 0 0 0 0 0 0
    N 90 0 0 0 0 0
    NP 90 75 0 0 33 33
    SNP 90 75 (隔年施Every two years) 3.75 (秸秆Straw) 6.4 16.5 22.9
    M 0 0 75 (农家肥Farm manure) 200 0 200
    NPM 90 75 75 (农家肥Farm manure) 200 33 233
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  长期不同施肥处理下作物磷肥农学利用效率和生理效率的变化

    Table  2.   Changes of agronomic and physiological efficiencies of P fertilizer under different long-term fertilization treatments

    处处理
    Treatment
    小麦Wheat 玉米Corn
    平均
    Average
    (kg·kg-1)
    变异系数
    CV (%)
    年变化率
    Annual change rate
    (kg·kg-1·a-1)
    R2
    (n=26)
    平均
    Average
    (kg·kg-1)
    变异系数
    CV (%)
    年变化率
    Annual change rate
    (kg·kg-1·a-1)
    R2
    (n=10)
    农学利用效率
    Agronomic efficiency
    NP 55.64 49.41 0.862 9 0.118 5 84.39 52.82 2.161 2 0.379 3
    SNP 87.51 42.42 1.300 5 0.147 7 147.03 52.25 4.579 5 0.573 2*
    M 8.26 64.03 0.276 0 0.327 3* 15.03 61.60 0.591 8 0.659 1*
    MNP 11.40 41.14 0.175 9 0.169 7* 18.78 46.60 0.430 6 0.390 7
    生理效率
    Physiological efficiency
    NP 267.27 47.10 6.748 7 0.345 8** 212.17 13.04 0.616 5 0.080 1
    SNP 295.50 23.81 -3.133 3 0.238 6* 225.84 14.08 1.488 4 0.353 7
    M 191.23 49.49 2.775 4 0.103 3 191.37 14.23 1.623 9 0.573 8*
    MNP 222.77 29.74 2.813 0 0.216 9* 192.92 7.03 0.566 7 0.281 4
      *: P < 0.05; **: P < 0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  长期不同施肥处理下作物磷肥当季利用率和回收率的变化

    Table  3.   Changes of using and recovery rates of P fertilizer under different long-term fertilization treatments

    处理
    Treatment
    小麦Wheat 玉米Corn
    平均
    Average
    (%)
    变异系数
    CV (%)
    年变化率
    Annual change rate
    (%·a-1)
    R2
    (n=26)
    平均
    Average
    (%)
    变异系数
    CV (%)
    年变化率
    Annual change rate (%·a-1)
    R2
    (n=10)
    当季利用率
    Using rate
    NP 22.87 61.21 -0.421 5 0.108 91 39.22 43.06 0.846 4 0.405 0*
    SNP 29.98 53.20 0.859 8 0.349 6** 63.32 45.57 1.667 6 0.538 8*
    M 4.35 56.77 0.073 5 0.106 8 7.58 51.03 0.236 9 0.606 0**
    MNP 5.20 42.08 0.000 9 0.000 2 9.64 42.53 0.191 2 0.350 6
    当季回收率
    Recovery rate
    NP 25.22 71.65 -0.822 8 0.249 5** 35.89 52.77 0.816 9 0.300 1
    SNP 33.37 36.98 0.280 9 0.062 4 58.52 63.78 1.625 0 0.305 8
    M 4.74 57.19 0.007 3 0.000 9 7.03 63.41 0.232 1 0.437 8*
    MNP 15.55 42.63 -0.155 1 0.065 8 28.72 42.79 0.506 8 0.274 2
      *: P < 0.05; **: P < 0.01.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-11-03
  • 录用日期:  2018-01-28
  • 刊出日期:  2018-07-01

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