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浮尘天气对墨玉河流域葡萄叶片光合及水势的影响

张付春 潘明启 麦麦提阿卜拉·麦麦提图尔荪 张雯 钟海霞 李团结 高达辉 伍新宇

张付春, 潘明启, 麦麦提阿卜拉·麦麦提图尔荪, 张雯, 钟海霞, 李团结, 高达辉, 伍新宇. 浮尘天气对墨玉河流域葡萄叶片光合及水势的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 990-998. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170769
引用本文: 张付春, 潘明启, 麦麦提阿卜拉·麦麦提图尔荪, 张雯, 钟海霞, 李团结, 高达辉, 伍新宇. 浮尘天气对墨玉河流域葡萄叶片光合及水势的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(7): 990-998. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170769
ZHANG Fuchun, PAN Mingqi, MEMETABLA·Memettursun, ZHANG Wen, ZHONG Haixia, LI Tuanjie, GAO Dahui, WU Xinyu. Effect of floating dust weather on leaf photosynthesis and water potential of grapes in Karakash River Basin[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 990-998. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170769
Citation: ZHANG Fuchun, PAN Mingqi, MEMETABLA·Memettursun, ZHANG Wen, ZHONG Haixia, LI Tuanjie, GAO Dahui, WU Xinyu. Effect of floating dust weather on leaf photosynthesis and water potential of grapes in Karakash River Basin[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(7): 990-998. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170769

浮尘天气对墨玉河流域葡萄叶片光合及水势的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170769
基金项目: 

现代农业产业技术体系专项资金 CARS-29-ZP-8

国家重点研发计划 SQ2018YFD020082

新疆科技成果转化专项 201554131

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张付春, 研究方向为葡萄栽培生理, E-mail:zfc20@foxmail.com

    通讯作者:

    潘明启, 研究方向为葡萄品质调控, E-mail:panmq3399@sohu.com

    伍新宇, 研究方向为葡萄优质栽培与品种选育, E-mail:454691627@qq.com

  • 中图分类号: S631.1

Effect of floating dust weather on leaf photosynthesis and water potential of grapes in Karakash River Basin

Funds: 

the Special Funds for the Industrial Technology System Construction of Modern Agriculture of China CARS-29-ZP-8

the National Key R&D Project of China SQ2018YFD020082

the Project of the Commercialization of Research Findings of Xinjiang 201554131

More Information
  • 摘要: 新疆墨玉河流域春、夏季浮尘天气频发,加之春季葡萄供水短缺,对葡萄生产影响较大,为了解浮尘天气对墨玉河流域葡萄光合作用和叶片水势的影响以及不同品种对当地气候的适应性,本文分析了2011-2017年墨玉县浮尘天气发生情况,并以‘和田红’、‘木纳格’、‘无核白’和‘无核白鸡心’等葡萄品种为试验材料,研究春季浮尘天气和尘土自然覆盖对葡萄叶片光合与水势的影响。结果表明:2011-2017年的4-5月,新疆墨玉县扬沙、浮尘多达23.7 d,占同期总天数的38.9%;浮尘天气研究区10:00-20:00期间平均光合有效辐射强度下降71.8%,几个品种葡萄叶片净光合速率明显下降,除‘木纳格’葡萄外,其他品种叶片净光合速率午间均下降;晴朗天气,葡萄叶片水势日变化先上升后下降,浮尘天气叶片水势日变化不明显,总体低于晴朗天气,蒸腾速率变化趋势总体相似,略有滞后;持续的浮尘天气使葡萄叶面被尘土覆盖,‘无核白’和‘无核白鸡心’单位面积叶幕滞尘量分别为8.64 g·m-2和10.93 g·m-2;尘土覆盖显著降低了‘无核白’和‘无核白鸡心’葡萄叶片净光合速率,明显增加了叶片胞间CO2浓度,提高了饱和光强、光补偿点、内禀量子效率、表观量子产额和暗呼吸速率。本研究表明浮尘天气降低了光合有效辐射强度,使葡萄叶片受到尘土覆盖,进一步降低了叶片净光合速率,同时显著增大了暗呼吸速率。本研究认为,清除葡萄叶面滞尘,可有效改善葡萄叶片光合作用。浮尘天气条件下,葡萄叶片蒸腾速率下降,叶片水势得到了保持,从这一角度讲,墨玉河流域浮尘天气延缓了葡萄春季水分亏缺、缓解了该地区用水矛盾。
  • 图  1  尘土覆盖条件下光合作用测定示意图

    左:尘土覆盖; 右:清除尘土; 圆圈为测定位置。

    Figure  1.  Schematic of photosynthesis determination under dust cover condition

    Left: dust cover; right: dust removed. Circles show the positions of measurement.

    图  2  2011-2017年4-5月研究区天气类型构成

    Figure  2.  Composition of weather types from April to May during 2011-2017 in the study area

    图  3  晴天和浮尘天气条件下3个葡萄品种叶片净光合速率与光合有效辐射强度日变化

    A:晴天净光合速率日变化; B:浮尘天净光合速率日变化; C:光合有效辐射强度日变化。

    Figure  3.  Diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) of three grape varieties under sunny and dust day conditions

    A: diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate in sunny day; B: diurnal variations of net photosynthetic rate in dust day; C: diurnal variations of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR).

    图  4  浮尘天气和晴朗天气不同葡萄品种的叶片水势与蒸腾速率的比较

    Figure  4.  Comparison of leaf water potential and leaf transpiration rate of different grape varieties under sunny and dust day conditions

    图  5  尘土覆盖下不同葡萄品种叶片光合速率的光响应情况

    Figure  5.  Light response of photosynthetic rate (Pn) of different grape varieties leaves under dust cover

    表  1  持续浮尘天气下不同葡萄品种叶面滞尘量

    Table  1.   Dust retention amounts of leaves of different grape varieties after continuous floating dust weather

    品种
    Variety
    单叶滞尘量
    Dust retention per leaf (mg)
    单位面积叶片滞尘量
    Dust retention per unit area of leaf (mg∙cm-2)
    单位面积叶幕滞尘量
    Dust retention per unit area of canopy (g∙m-2)
    无核白
    Thompson Seedless
    134.4±11.1B 0.627±0.068A 8.64±0.71B
    无核白鸡心
    Centennial Seedless
    147.2±12.5A 0.578±0.039B 10.93±0.93A
    同列数据后不同大写字母表示组间差异极显著(P < 0.01)。Different capital letters in the same column indicate significant differences between treatments at 0.01 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  尘土覆盖下不同葡萄品种叶片蒸腾速率、气孔导度、叶片温度、净光合速率和胞间CO2浓度

    Table  2.   Transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf temperature, net photosynthetic rate and intercellular CO2 concentration of different varieties grape leaves under dust cover

    品种
    Variety
    尘土情况
    Dust situation
    蒸腾速率
    Transpiration rate (mmol·m-2·s-1)
    气孔导度
    Stomatal conductance (mmol·mol-1)
    叶片温度
    Leaf temperature (℃)
    净光合速率
    Net photosynthetic rate (mmol·m-2·s-1)
    胞间CO2浓度
    Intercellular CO2 concentration (mmol·mol-1)
    无核白
    Thompson Seedless
    尘土覆盖
    Dust cover
    0.7±0.2B 63.3±20.7C 22.1±0.4A 7.7±1.0C 225.4±46.3B
    清除尘土
    Dust remove
    1.1±0.2A 129.5±20.7B 21.5±0.4A 11.5±1.6B 189.5±31.4C
    无核白鸡心
    Centennial Seedless
    尘土覆盖
    Dust cover
    1.3±0.1A 196.7±26.4A 22.0±0.3A 11.3±0.5B 272.2±31.1A
    清除尘土
    Dust remove
    1.4±0.5A 212.1±84.3A 21.1±0.1A 12.2±0.1A 220.1±36.8B
    同列数据后同一品种不同大写字母表示组间差异极显著(P < 0.01)。Different capital letters in the same column for each variety indicate significant differences between treatments at 0.01 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  无尘和尘土覆盖不同葡萄品种叶片光响应参数

    Table  3.   Photoresponse parameters of different grape varieties leaves under conditions of dust cover and dust remove

    参数
    Parameter
    无核白
    Thompson Seedless
    变幅(%)
    Variation range
    无核白鸡心
    Centennial Seedless
    变幅(%)
    Variation range
    尘土覆盖Dust cover 清除尘土Dust remove 尘土覆盖Dust cover 清除尘土Dust remove
    饱和光强Saturation light (µmol∙m-2∙s-1) 2 094a 1 954a 7.2 2 223a 2 183a 1.8
    光补偿点Light compensation point (µmol∙m-2∙s-1) 16.4a 15.3a 7.2 46.0a 39.3a 17.0
    光较差Range of light intensity of photosynthesis (µmol∙m-2∙s-1) 2 079a 1 938a 7.3 2 184a 2 137a 2.2
    最大净光合速率Maximum net photosynthetic rate (µmol∙m-2∙s-1) 12.1b 14.1a -14.2 13.7b 15.9a -13.8
    内禀量子效率Intrinsic quantum efficiency 0.062 9a 0.037 5b 67.7 0.049 9a 0.033 7ab 48.1
    表观量子产额Apparent quantum yield 0.035 3b 0.055 9a 58.4 0.030 3ab 0.041 4a 36.6
    暗呼吸速率Dark respiration rate (µmol∙m-2∙s-1) 0.86a 0.58b 48.3 1.63a 1.39ab 17.3
    同行数据后同一品种不同小写字母表示组间差异显著(P < 0.05)。Different lowercase letters in the same line for each variety indicate significant differences between treatments at 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV
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    [22] 李恩宝, 刘美华, 吕连宏, 等.临安市8种绿化植物滞尘能力及光合响应差异[J].森林与环境学报, 2017, 37(2): 236-240 http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-10193-1013309694.htm

    LI E B, LIU M H, LÜ L H, et al. Differences of dust retention capacity and plant photosynthesis of eight green plants in Lin'an[J]. Journal of Forest and Environment, 2017, 37(2): 236-240 http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-10193-1013309694.htm
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-08-24
  • 录用日期:  2017-10-27
  • 刊出日期:  2018-07-01

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