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旱地雨养农业覆膜体系及其土壤生态环境效应

蒋锐 郭升 马德帝

蒋锐, 郭升, 马德帝. 旱地雨养农业覆膜体系及其土壤生态环境效应[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(3): 317-328. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170760
引用本文: 蒋锐, 郭升, 马德帝. 旱地雨养农业覆膜体系及其土壤生态环境效应[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(3): 317-328. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170760
JIANG Rui, GUO Sheng, MA Dedi. Review of plastic film mulching system and its impact on soil ecological envi-ronment in China's rainfed drylands[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(3): 317-328. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170760
Citation: JIANG Rui, GUO Sheng, MA Dedi. Review of plastic film mulching system and its impact on soil ecological envi-ronment in China's rainfed drylands[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(3): 317-328. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170760

旱地雨养农业覆膜体系及其土壤生态环境效应

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170760
基金项目: 

陕西省自然科学基础研究计划项目 2017JM4012

陕西省科技统筹创新工程计划项目 2016KTZDNY03-06

国家自然科学基金项目 41201279

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    蒋锐, 主要从事流域与农田氮迁移过程与机制、面源污染研究。E-mail: jiangrui@nwsuaf.edu.cn

  • 同等贡献者
  • 中图分类号: S153.6+2

Review of plastic film mulching system and its impact on soil ecological envi-ronment in China's rainfed drylands

Funds: 

the Natural Science Basic Research Plan of Shaanxi Province of China 2017JM4012

the Science and Technology for Co-ordination and Innovation Project of Shaanxi Province, China 2016KTZDNY03-06

the National Natural Science Foundation of China 41201279

More Information
  • 摘要: 覆膜技术作为一项有效提高粮食产量的重要手段,在中国西北地区雨养农业中得到广泛的推广应用。本文综述了地膜覆盖体系关于作物产量、土壤水分、土壤温度、土壤养分转化和迁移以及微生物数量和活性等方面的研究进展,以期为旱地雨养农业发展和完善覆膜技术体系提供理论支撑。研究表明:玉米、小麦和马铃薯覆膜处理增产显著,其平均增产率分别为26.2%、37.1%和29.8%;同时,增产受到覆膜方式影响,全覆膜处理增产效果最好,其玉米、小麦和马铃薯平均产量分别比半覆膜处理高30.0%、5.1%和26.4%。覆膜下玉米、小麦与马铃薯的水分利用效率分别比不覆膜处理高42.8%、10.9%和92.8%。覆膜处理影响硝酸盐在土体的空间分布,硝酸盐在膜下出现表聚现象;同时覆膜能够提高氮肥利用效率,减少氮素淋溶损失,降低氨挥发。但关于覆膜下反硝化过程的研究结论不一,还需进一步深入的探讨。覆膜对有机碳的影响与气候、土壤、作物、覆膜年限等有关,其研究结论尚有争议。另外,覆膜增加了农田土壤微生物量,改变土壤物理性状。尽管覆膜显著提高作物产量,其对生态环境却可能存在一定的影响,比如"奢侈耗水"现象,温室气体排放增加,土壤有机质耗竭,农膜残留等问题。因此,进一步系统研究覆膜对土壤生态环境的影响机理,完善覆膜技术体系与应用,全面评估覆膜体系的生态环境影响,对其在中国干旱地区农业生产的可持续发展具有重要意义。
    Equal contributors
    1)  同等贡献者
  • 图  1  不同覆膜方式相对于不覆膜处理的作物增产率

    玉米、小麦和马铃薯的样本量分别为36、40和43。箱线图边线为25%和75%数据范围, 中线为中位数, "□"为平均数, 箱图上下"×"为异常值边界; 采用F检验判断显著性差异, ***分别表示在0.05、0.01水平上差异显著。

    Figure  1.  Yield increase rates of different crops under different plastic film mulching methods compared with no mulching

    Samples numbers of maize, wheat and potato are 36, 40 and 43, respectively. The boundary lines of boxplot are 25% and 75% of the data range. The center lines are the medians, "□" shows average, and "×" shows the abnormal value. Using F test to determine significant difference. * and ** mean significant differences at 0.05 and 0.01 probability levels, respectively.

    图  2  不同覆膜方式下相对于不覆膜处理作物生育期缩短时间的差异

    玉米、小麦和马铃薯的样本量分别为22、13和22。箱线图边线为25%和75%数据范围, 中线为中位数, "□"为平均数, 箱图上下"×"为异常值边界; 采用F检验判断显著性差异, *表示在0.05水平上差异显著。

    Figure  2.  Differences in shortening of growth period of crops under different mulching methods compared with no mulching

    Samples numbers of maize, wheat and potato are 22, 13 and 22, respectively. The boundary lines of boxplot are 25% and 75% of the data range. The center lines are the medians, "□" shows average, and "×" shows the abnormal value. Using F test to determine significant difference. * means significant differences at 0.05 probability level.

    图  3  覆膜处理对作物产量的影响

    玉米、小麦和马铃薯的样本量分别为45、39和51。箱线图边线为25%和75%数据范围, 中线为中位数, "□"为平均数, 箱图上下"×"为异常值边界; 采用F检验判断显著性差异, **表示在0.01水平上差异显著。

    Figure  3.  Effect of plastic film mulching on crop yield

    Samples numbers of maize, wheat and potato are 45, 39 and 51, respectively. The boundary lines of boxplot are 25% and 75% of the data range. The center lines are the medians, "□" shows average, and "×" shows the abnormal value. Using F test to determine significant difference. ** means significant differences at 0.01 probability level.

    图  4  覆膜对作物总耗水量(a)和水分利用效率(b)的影响

    玉米、小麦和马铃薯的样本量分别为13、9和7。箱线图边线为25%和75%数据范围, 中线为中位数, "□"为平均数, 箱图上下"×"为异常值边界。

    Figure  4.  Effect of plastic film mulching on total water consumption of crops

    Samples numbers of maize, wheat and potato are 13, 9 and 7, respectively. The boundary lines of boxplot are 25% and 75% of the data range. The center lines are the medians, "□" shows average, and "×" shows the abnormal value.

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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-08-23
  • 录用日期:  2017-10-28
  • 刊出日期:  2018-03-01

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