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滴灌水肥一体化条件下施氮量对夏玉米氮素吸收利用及土壤硝态氮含量的影响

郭丽 史建硕 王丽英 李若楠 任燕利 张彦才

郭丽, 史建硕, 王丽英, 李若楠, 任燕利, 张彦才. 滴灌水肥一体化条件下施氮量对夏玉米氮素吸收利用及土壤硝态氮含量的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(5): 668-676. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170416
引用本文: 郭丽, 史建硕, 王丽英, 李若楠, 任燕利, 张彦才. 滴灌水肥一体化条件下施氮量对夏玉米氮素吸收利用及土壤硝态氮含量的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2018, 26(5): 668-676. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170416
GUO Li, SHI Jianshuo, WANG Liying, LI Ruonan, REN Yanli, ZHANG Yancai. Effects of nitrogen application rate on nitrogen absorption and utilization in summer maize and soil NO3--N content under drip fertigation[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(5): 668-676. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170416
Citation: GUO Li, SHI Jianshuo, WANG Liying, LI Ruonan, REN Yanli, ZHANG Yancai. Effects of nitrogen application rate on nitrogen absorption and utilization in summer maize and soil NO3--N content under drip fertigation[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2018, 26(5): 668-676. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170416

滴灌水肥一体化条件下施氮量对夏玉米氮素吸收利用及土壤硝态氮含量的影响

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170416
基金项目: 

农业部公益性农业(行业)科研专项 201303133

国家重点研发计划专项 2016YFD0200401

详细信息
    作者简介:

    郭丽, 主要从事作物栽培学研究。E-mail:guolisoil@163.com

    通讯作者:

    王丽英, 主要从事新型肥料研究与应用工作。E-mail:wangliying5@163.com

  • 中图分类号: S143.3

Effects of nitrogen application rate on nitrogen absorption and utilization in summer maize and soil NO3--N content under drip fertigation

Funds: 

This study was supported by the Special Fund for Agro-Scientific Research in the Public Interest of China 201303133

the National Key Technology R&D Program of China 2016YFD0200401

More Information
  • 摘要: 河北山前平原夏玉米高产区施肥不合理现象普遍存在,农业面源污染严重。研究华北山前平原水肥一体化条件下夏玉米适宜的氮肥运筹,可为该区氮素优化施用技术及提高氮肥利用效率提供依据。本研究以‘郑单958’玉米品种为材料,于2014-2015年2个玉米生长季,在滴灌条件下设置4个施氮水平(N0:不施氮;N1:120 kg·hm-2;N2:240 kg·hm-2;N3:360 kg·hm-2),研究滴灌水肥一体化下施氮量对玉米氮素吸收利用和土壤硝态氮含量的影响。结果表明:N0处理的玉米干物质重及产量较其他处理显著降低,N1、N2和N3处理间无显著差异;N1处理的玉米氮含量和氮累积量较N0处理显著增加,施氮量在N1~N3范围内,不同年份间玉米植株氮含量和氮累积量存在一定差异,总体表现为随施氮量的增加而上升的趋势,但随施氮量的增加,植株氮含量和氮累积量上升幅度逐渐降低。N2处理的氮肥收获指数最高。随施氮量增加,氮肥当季回收利用率、氮肥农学效率、氮肥生产效率和氮肥利用效率显著降低;2014年,在0~100 cm土层范围内,4种施氮处理的土壤硝态氮含量均表现为随土层加深逐渐降低;2015年N2和N3处理的土壤硝态氮在80~100 cm土层达到累积峰,经过2年种植后,年施氮量超过240 kg·hm-2的处理,土壤硝态氮淋洗加剧。利用一元二次方程拟合产量与施氮量之间的关系,明确了玉米最高产量的施氮量为199~209 kg·hm-2,经济施氮量为174~187 kg·hm-2。综合考虑经济效益和生态效益,该条件下夏玉米滴灌水肥一体化的适宜施氮量为174~187 kg·hm-2
  • 图  1  2014年和2015年滴灌水肥一体化下不同施氮量对夏玉米干物质累积量的影响

    不同字母表示不同处理差异达5%显著水平。N0:不施氮; N1: 120 kg·hm-2; N2: 240 kg·hm-2; N3: 360 kg·hm-2

    Figure  1.  Effect of nitrogen application rate on summer maize dry weight accumulation under drip fertigation in 2014 and 2015

    Different letters mean significant differences among nitrogen treatments at 5% levels. N0: no nitrogen; N1: 120 kg·hm-2 nitrogen; N2: 240 kg·hm-2 nitrogen; N3: 360 kg·hm-2 nitrogen.

    图  2  2014年和2015年滴灌水肥一体化下施氮量对0~100 cm剖面土壤硝态氮含量的影响

    Figure  2.  Effect of nitrogen application rate on soil NO3--N content in 0-100 cm depth soil maize under drip fertigation in 2014 and 2015

    图  3  2014年和2015年滴灌水肥—体化下夏玉米产量与施氮量的关系

    Figure  3.  Relations between yield and nitrogen application rate of summer maize under drip fertigation in 2014 and 2015

    表  1  2014年和2015年滴灌水肥一体化下施氮量对夏玉米植株氮含量及氮累积量的影响

    Table  1.   Effects of nitrogen application rate on nitrogen content and accumulation amount in summer maize under drip fertigation in 2014 and 2015

    年份
    Year
    处理
    Treatment
    氮含量Nitrogen content (g·kg-1)   氮累积量Nitrogen accumulation amount (kg·hm-2)
    拔节期
    Jointing
    吐丝期
    Silking
    灌浆期
    Filling
    成熟期
    Maturity
    拔节期
    Jointing
    吐丝期
    Silking
    灌浆期
    Filling
    成熟期
    Maturity
    2014 N0 29.7±1.9c 19.1±0.3c 14.3±0.6c 10.5±1.1c 17.10±0.68b 85.12±4.66c 150.78±3.35c 166.92±6.08c
    N1 36.2±1.3a 23.3±1.7b 18.3±0.5b 12.7±1.3b 26.27±3.53a 123.49±7.69b 233.52±24.03b 250.89±21.57b
    N2 39.4±4.1a 26.2±2.4ab 20.8±0.7ab 14.6±0.5ab 27.95±0.85a 138.53±5.87ab 255.29±8.59a 275.97±8.04a
    N3 39.3±2.9a 29.7±3.0a 21.5±0.7a 15.1±0.8a 25.07±2.96a 158.63±14.91a 259.74±10.42a 276.05±8.33a
    2015 N0 25.4±0.7b 14.5±0.6d 12.3±1.6b 9.8±0.9b 12.73±1.60b 71.76±3.03c 123.24±9.14b 176.79±8.96c
    N1 32.5±1.3a 20.2±1.7c 17.2±1.7a 11.4±0.2a 17.86±1.37a 98.52±10.60b 221.41±18.45a 240.43±14.09b
    N2 33.3±1.8a 23.9±1.8b 18.3±0.6a 12.0±1.1a 19.17±2.17a 113.77±4.95a 226.37±16.42a 245.51±21.78b
    N3 34.5±0.6a 27.4±1.7a 18.0±0.5a 12.6±0.6a 19.69±0.82a 118.92±5.50a 227.39±20.18a 274.08±25.33a
    同一年份不同字母表示不同处理差异达5%显著水平。N0:不施氮; N1: 120 kg·hm-2; N2: 240 kg·hm-2; N3: 360 kg·hm-2。Different letters for the same year mean significant differences among nitrogen treatments at 5% level. N0: no nitrogen; N1: 120 kg·hm-2 nitrogen; N2: 240 kg·hm-2 nitrogen; N3: 360 kg·hm-2 nitrogen.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  2014年和2015年滴灌水肥一体化下施氮量对夏玉米籽粒产量和氮素利用效率的影响

    Table  2.   Effects of nitrogen application rate on grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of summer maize under drip fertigation in 2014 and 2015

    年份
    Year
    处理
    Treatment
    产量
    Grain yield
    (kg·hm-2)
    氮收获指数
    Nitrogen harvest index
    (%)
    氮肥当季回收率
    Nitrogen recovery Efficiency
    (%)
    氮肥农学效率
    Nitrogen agronomy efficiency
    (kg·kg-1)
    氮肥生产效率
    Nitrogen productive efficiency
    (kg·kg-1)
    氮肥利用效率
    Nitrogen use efficiency
    (kg·kg-1)
    2014 N0 7 831.55b 0.58a 46.96a
    N1 9 969.76a 0.6a 0.61a 24.49a 83.08a 39.87b
    N2 9 562.74a 0.52b 0.45b 7.21b 39.84b 34.62bc
    N3 8 702.62ab 0.48b 0.30b 3.35b 25.10c 31.55c
    2015 N0 10 857.63b 0.65a 61.81a
    N1 12 854.77a 0.70a 0.53a 20.64a 107.12a 53.48ab
    N2 12 080.44ab 0.61b 0.29b 5.28b 50.34b 49.33bc
    N3 11 748.25ab 0.55c 0.26b 2.47b 32.63c 43.17c
    同一年份不同字母表示不同处理差异达5%显著水平。N0:不施氮; N1: 120 kg·hm-2; N2: 240 kg·hm-2; N3: 360 kg·hm-2。Different letters for the same year mean significant differences among nitrogen treatments at 5% level. N0: no nitrogen; N1: 120 kg·hm-2 nitrogen; N2: 240 kg·hm-2 nitrogen; N3: 360 kg·hm-2 nitrogen.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  滴灌水肥一体化下夏玉米产量及氮吸收利用指标间的相关性

    Table  3.   Correlation analysis between yield and indexes of nitrogen absorption and utilization of summer maize under drip fertigation

    施氮量
    AON
    产量
    GY
    氮收获指数
    NHI
    氮当季回收率
    NRE
    氮肥农学效率
    NAE
    氮肥生产效率
    NPE
    氮肥利用效率
    NUE
    吸氮量
    TNU
    施氮量AON 1.00
    产量GY 0.14 1.00
    氮收获指数NHI -0.65 0.63 1.00
    氮肥当季回收率NRE -0.90** -0.03 0.49 1.00
    氮肥农学效率NAE -0.92** 0.18 0.68* 0.94** 1.00
    氮肥生产效率NPE -0.92** 0.53 0.91** 0.80* 0.91** 1.00
    氮肥利用效率NUE -0.67* 0.51 0.86** 0.12 0.34 0.67* 1.00
    吸氮量TNU 0.89** 0.23 -0.50 -0.47 -0.67* -0.84** -0.71* 1.00
    *和**分别表示P < 0.05和P < 0.01水平显著相关(双尾检验)。AON: nitrogen application rate; GY: grain yield; NHI: nitrogen harvest index; NRE: nitrogen recovery efficiency; NAE: nitrogen agronomy efficiency; NPE: nitrogen productive efficiency; NUE: nitrogen use efficiency; TNU: total nitrogen uptake. * and ** mean significant correlations at 0.05 and 0.01 levels (2: tailed), respectively.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2017-05-08
  • 录用日期:  2017-11-28
  • 刊出日期:  2018-05-01

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