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农业土地共享和土地分离及其潜在的生物多样性效应

杨梅 刘章勇

杨梅, 刘章勇. 农业土地共享和土地分离及其潜在的生物多样性效应[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(6): 787-794. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160996
引用本文: 杨梅, 刘章勇. 农业土地共享和土地分离及其潜在的生物多样性效应[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(6): 787-794. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160996
YANG Mei, LIU Zhangyong. Agricultural land sharing/sparing and their potential effects on biodiversity[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(6): 787-794. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160996
Citation: YANG Mei, LIU Zhangyong. Agricultural land sharing/sparing and their potential effects on biodiversity[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(6): 787-794. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160996

农业土地共享和土地分离及其潜在的生物多样性效应

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160996
基金项目: 

国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目 2016YFD0300208-04

长江大学湿地生态与农业利用教育部工程研究中心开放基金 KF201610

详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨梅, 主要研究方向为农业生物多样性和分子生态学。E-mail:myang@yangtzeu.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    刘章勇, 主要研究方向为农田生态系统的功能评价与生态修复。E-mail:lzy1331@hotmail.com

  • 中图分类号: S181;Q149

Agricultural land sharing/sparing and their potential effects on biodiversity

Funds: 

This study was supported by the National Program on Key Basic Research Project of China 2016YFD0300208-04

Open Foundation of Engineering Research Center of Ecology and Agricultural Use of Wetland in Yangtze University KF201610

More Information
  • 摘要: 农业在生物多样性维持方面扮演重要角色,农业既是生物多样性的传递者,同时集约化农业也是导致生物多样性降低的主要原因。“土地共享”和“土地分离”是重要的协调粮食产量和生物多样性保护的土地利用策略,前者关注的是农田环境的改善,后者指通过土地利用集约化,提高作物单产,释放出更多土地用于自然保护。目前,对于哪一种土地利用方式更有利于生物多样性保护仍是有争议的。本研究综述了上述两种土地利用策略的优缺点及其对生物多样性的影响,并分析归纳了应用和选择土地利用方式时应考虑的因素,如:对集约化敏感的物种;景观背景、景观尺度和景观结构;社会经济因素等。在此基础上,展望了该理论对我国未来农业发展的启示,包括:因地制宜规划农业景观格局,如考虑区域的产量潜力和特有物种;发展可持续集约化农业和加强“溢出效应”的管理,提高生态系统自我恢复能力;在不同景观尺度上建立土地共享-分离混合模式,在集约化农业地区适度恢复农用林业。
  • 图  1  土地共享和土地分离的土地利用方式(引自Balmford等[17])

    a:土地共享, 农田尺度上生物多样性友好型的农业景观; b:土地分离, 区域尺度上匀出部分土地作为自然生境的农业景观。阴影部分代表野生自然生境, 且a、b的阴影总面积相同。

    Figure  1.  The land use patterns of land sharing and land sparing [cited from the reference [17] (Balmford et al.)]

    a: "biodiversity-friendly" landscapes that involve land sharing at field scale. B: landscapes that involve land sparing at regional scale across a group of farms. In each landscape, the same total area (denoted by the shadows) is given over to wild nature.

    图  2  土地共享(a)和土地分离(b)的生物多样性效应

    实线和“+”代表正效应, 虚线和“-”代表负效应。Solid lines indicate a positive relationship and “+” symbols indicate an increase in the direction of the arrow, whereas hatched lines indicate a negative relationship and “-” symbols indicate a decrease in the direction of the arrow.

    Figure  2.  Effects of land sharing (a) and land sparing (b) on biodiversity

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  • 收稿日期:  2016-11-07
  • 录用日期:  2016-12-20
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