为完成传统两年3作区麦套花生向夏播花生种植制度的改革, 全面研究夏直播花生生育规律, 本试验通过池栽试验, 研究了麦套夏花生、夏播起垄覆膜、夏播起垄露地3种种植方式下花生开花物候进程和生殖特征, 并对变化动态进行数学分析, 探讨不同种植方式下花生开花物候指数和结实差异。试验结果表明: 夏播起垄覆膜处理可加速花生前期生育进程, 出苗至始花期缩短8 d左右, 提高开花同步指数, 使得花期更为集中。夏播起垄覆膜处理较麦套处理花生单株最大开花量提高4.9%, 果针数增加20.0%, 下针盛期延长7 d, 单株结果数增加20.0%, 单株饱果数增加15.8%, 荚果体积提高12.2%。试验说明夏播花生同样具有高产潜力, 夏播起垄覆膜处理荚果和籽仁产量均为3处理中最高, 分别为5 196.3 kghm2、3 439.95 kghm2, 比麦套处理高7.7%、7.7%, 比夏播起垄露地处理高20.0%、31.1%; 出仁率夏播起垄覆膜处理和麦套处理基本一致。试验表明, 通过地膜覆盖等措施, 能克服花生生育期短、荚果饱满度不够等限制因素, 有利于提早结果和结果集中, 保证了荚果数量和荚果的充实, 为高产打下基础。
Although peanut intercropping with wheat is the main planting system in the “2-year triple cropping systems” area, the system is inferior in terms of manpower requirement, mechanization level and planting scale. To realize the cropping system reform from the intercropping system to summer seeding system and to comprehensively study growth regularities of summer sowing systems, a pool-culture experiment was conducted, and the flowering phenology and fruiting characteristics of peanut under 3 different planting systems [intercropping with wheat (T1), summer sowing after wheat harvest with ridging and film mulching (T2) and summer sowing after wheat harvest with ridging (T3)] were analyzed. The study conducted mathematical analysis on changes in flower development and investigated the indexes of flowering phenology and differences in fructification of peanut planted through different methods. Thus the study provided vital theory basis for high-yield culture of summer peanut. The results showed that T2 treatment accelerated the growing process of peanut at the early stage, shortened the period from germination to flowering by about 8 days and improved the index for synchronous flowering, thereby concentrating flowering period of peanut. Compared with T1, T2 improved the maximum amount of flowering per plant by 4.9%, increased the number of fruit pins per plant by 20.0%, extended the period of full blooming by 7 days, increased the number of fruits per plant by 20.0%, increased the number of full pods per plant by 15.8%, and enlarged pod volume by 12.2%. The study suggested that peanut summer cultivation system also had high-yield potential and that T2 system had the best yield, with pod yield and seed kernel yield of respectively 5 196.3 kghm2 and 3 439.95 kghm2. Compared withT1, T2 improved pod and seed yield by 7.7%. Also compared with T3, T2 improved pod and seed yields respectively by 20.0% and 31.1%. T2 had the same kernel rate as T1. The results indicated that plastic film mulching with ridging cultivation overcame peanut production limitation factors such as short growth period and imperfect pods. This was beneficial for early and intensive podding, guaranteeing pod number and pod plumpness, laying the basis for high-yield peanut production.