水安全是粮食安全的基础, 实现农业水资源的高效利用是保障水安全和粮食安全的根本途径。本文阐述了水安全与粮食安全的概念; 分析了全球及我国水安全与粮食安全现状和未来形势; 辨析了粮食安全的水资源保障战略的构成要素及我国节水农业的发展重点; 并就粮食生产的水资源高效利用、水资源高效配置与调控、农业水资源消耗的生态环境效应以及应对旱涝极端气候等进行了讨论, 进而对主要科学问题进行了归纳, 包括作物理想耗水与多过程协同调控机制、强人类活动下灌区多尺度水循环与伴生过程、粮食生产 水资源 生态过程的互馈机制以及农业旱涝致灾机理与预警机制。
Sustained supply of sufficient water resources and quality food is essential for the continuity of human being society. Water security is fundamental for food security. Continuously increasing the utilization efficiency of agricultural water resources is the only way to ensure future water and food security. This paper focused on the basic issues of water and food security, including the definitions, present and future states at global and national scales, water resources supporting strategies for national food security, and development of water-saving agriculture in China. The key issues of water and food security were reviewed and discussed, including efficient crop water consumption, high-efficiency control and management of water resources, ecological and environmental effects of agricultural water consumption processes and responses to flood and drought events. Then four major research fields were summarized, including: 1) ideal crop water consumption mechanisms and multi-process synergy control mechanisms, 2) multi-scale water cycle and accompanying processes at irrigation district scales with highly intensive human activity, 3) mutual feedback mechanisms of food production-water resources-ecological process systems, and 4) disaster-causing mechanisms and early-warning mechanisms of agricultural drought and flood disasters.