任羽飞, 封晓辉, 李静, 郭凯, 李伟柳, 吴玉洁, 刘小京. 遮荫对盐胁迫下油葵生长和光合生理的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(4): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230644
引用本文: 任羽飞, 封晓辉, 李静, 郭凯, 李伟柳, 吴玉洁, 刘小京. 遮荫对盐胁迫下油葵生长和光合生理的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(4): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230644
REN Y F, FENG X H, LI J, GUO K, LI W L, WU Y J, LIU X J. Impact of shading on growth and photosynthetic physiology traits of Helianthus annuus L. under salt stress[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(4): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230644
Citation: REN Y F, FENG X H, LI J, GUO K, LI W L, WU Y J, LIU X J. Impact of shading on growth and photosynthetic physiology traits of Helianthus annuus L. under salt stress[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(4): 1−14. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230644

遮荫对盐胁迫下油葵生长和光合生理的影响

Impact of shading on growth and photosynthetic physiology traits of Helianthus annuus L. under salt stress

  • 摘要: 盐碱地光伏系统下作物生长受到盐分和遮荫的双重影响, 研究双重逆境下作物的生理响应对该系统内作物种植有重要指导意义。本研究以油葵(Helianthus annuus L.)为试验材料, 采用盆栽试验, 设3个盐分水平(在初始含盐量的基础上外加NaCl含量0 g·kg−1、3 g·kg−1和5 g·kg−1)和4个遮荫水平(0、30%、60%和90%), 探究遮荫对盐胁迫下油葵生长、光合特性、叶片解剖结构、生物量积累和分配及籽粒产量等的影响, 为盐碱地光伏系统下开展作物种植提供理论依据。结果表明, 不同盐分水平下, 与不遮荫(遮荫水平0)处理相比, 遮荫会破坏油葵叶片光合反应中心, 降低光能转换效率, 减小叶片厚度和栅栏组织层, 减少光合产物积累, 进而抑制茎粗和花盘的生长, 影响光合产物分配方向, 最终降低籽粒产量; 但适度遮荫下油葵会通过增加株高、增大叶面积、提高核酮糖-1,5-二磷酸羧化酶(Rubisco酶)和磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧化酶 (PEPC酶)活性等方式提高叶片的光捕获能力, 促进光合作用进行。不同遮荫水平下, 与无盐分处理相比, 轻 (3 g·kg−1 NaCl)、重 (5 g·kg−1)度盐胁迫均会降低油葵的光合效率, 抑制株高、茎粗、花盘和叶片的生长, 减少光合产物的积累, 最终降低籽粒产量, 且不同盐胁迫浓度下油葵生长和光合生理特性在不同遮荫水平的变化规律不一致。其中, 30%遮荫水平能显著提高轻度盐胁迫下油葵叶片的Rubisco酶和PEPC酶活性, 减小叶片厚度, 增大栅栏组织层, 提高水分利用效率, 进而提高油葵光合效率, 促进油葵生长。研究表明弱光环境下油葵会通过改变自身形态、光合酶活性、光合产物分配等方式来应对环境胁迫, 且遮荫能在一定程度上缓解盐胁迫对油葵造成的负面影响。其中, 30%遮荫水平对缓解轻度盐胁迫引起的油葵光合能力降低和生长抑制的效果较好。

     

    Abstract: Crop growth in saline photovoltaic systems is influenced by both soil salinity and shading. Understanding the physiological responses of crops under dual stress is crucial for guiding crop planting in this system. In a split-plot experiment with varying soil salinity levels (0, 3, and 5 g·kg−1 NaCl, based on initial soil salt content) as the main zone and different shading levels (0, 30%, 60%, and 90%) as the subzone, we investigated the effects of shading on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, leaf anatomical structure, biomass accumulation, biomass distribution, and grain yield of Helianthus annuus L. under salt stress. This study provides a theoretical basis for crop cultivation in saline photovoltaic systems. The results revealed that shading, regardless of soil salt levels, compared with no shading treatment, disrupted photosynthetic reaction centers, reduced the light energy conversion efficiency of leaves, reduced the leaf thickness and palisade tissue layer thickness, inhibited the growth of the stem and flower disc, affected the accumulation and distribution direction of photosynthetic products, ultimately decreasing the grain yield of H. annuus. However, under moderate shade conditions, H. annuus showed improved light-capturing ability through increased plant height, leaf area, and enzyme activities of Rubisco and PEPC. Various shading levels, in comparison to the non-salt treatment, exerted additional effects under both mild and severe salt stress. These effects significantly impacted photosynthetic efficiency, inhibited plant height, stem, flower disc, and leaf growth, reduced the accumulation of photosynthetic products, and ultimately led to a reduction in the grain yield of H. annuus. The changes in the growth and photosynthetic physiological characteristics of H. annuus under different salt-stress concentrations were inconsistent across different shading levels. The 30% shading level significantly enhanced the enzyme activities of ribulose 1,5 diphosphate carboxylas (Rubisco) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in leaves, reduced leaf thickness, increased the palisade tissue layer thickness, and improved water use efficiency. Consequently, this enhancement led to improved photosynthetic efficiency and light energy conversion ability of H. annuus under slightly salt stress conditions. These results indicate that shading can inhibit the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of H. annuus under different salt levels, and H. annuus responds to environmental stress by changing its morphology, photosynthetic enzyme activity, and the direction of distribution of photosynthetic products in a low-light environment. Shading alleviated the negative effects of salt stress on H. annuus to a certain extent, in which the 30% shading level was more effective in alleviating the reduction in photosynthetic capacity and growth inhibition caused by slightly salt stress.

     

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