杨启睿, 李岚涛, 张潇, 苗玉红, 盛开, 张铎, 王宜伦. 施氮对夏花生产量、品质及光温生理特性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(4): 1−13. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230568
引用本文: 杨启睿, 李岚涛, 张潇, 苗玉红, 盛开, 张铎, 王宜伦. 施氮对夏花生产量、品质及光温生理特性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(4): 1−13. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230568
YANG Q R, LI L T, ZHANG X, MIAO Y H, SHENG K, ZHANG D, WANG Y L. Effect of nitrogen application on yield, quality and light temperature physiological characteristics of summer peanut[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(4): 1−13. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230568
Citation: YANG Q R, LI L T, ZHANG X, MIAO Y H, SHENG K, ZHANG D, WANG Y L. Effect of nitrogen application on yield, quality and light temperature physiological characteristics of summer peanut[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(4): 1−13. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230568

施氮对夏花生产量、品质及光温生理特性的影响

Effect of nitrogen application on yield, quality and light temperature physiological characteristics of summer peanut

  • 摘要: 氮肥不合理施用在导致资源浪费的同时, 还会影响花生正常生长发育和产量品质的形成。探究不同施氮量对夏花生产量、品质及氮素积累动态、光温生理特性和根系形态影响效应, 可以为花生高效科学施用氮肥提供依据。本研究在2021—2022年于河南省焦作市温县布置氮肥用量田间试验, 供试品种为‘豫花22’, 设0 kg·hm−2 、45 kg·hm−2 、90 kg·hm−2 、135 kg·hm−2 和180 kg·hm−2 5个氮肥用量处理, 于成熟期测定夏花生荚果产量和品质指标, 并分别于苗期、花针期、结荚期、饱果期测定叶片叶绿素相对含量值(SPAD值)、冠层光合有效辐射和冠层温度, 采集植株样品分析植株氮积累量和根系形态。结果表明, 随施氮量增加, 两年花生荚果产量均呈“线性+平台”趋势变化, 适宜施氮量分别为150 kg·hm−2和113 kg·hm−2, 施氮处理两年平均增产18.86%。成熟期籽粒粗蛋白、含油量和总氨基酸含量均随施氮量增加呈“先升高后趋于稳定”的趋势变化。与不施氮相比, 施氮处理籽粒粗蛋白、含油量和总氨基酸含量两年平均增幅分别为7.51%、3.10%和10.08%, 效果显著。通过Logistic生长曲线回归拟合, 得出施氮处理通过提高花生氮素最大积累速率和平均积累速率, 加速快速积累期与吸收峰值的出现, 进而提高花生氮素最大积累量; 适量施氮提高各部位氮素吸收积累量, 促进氮素向荚果中分配。各生育期冠层最高温度、最低温度与平均温度均随施氮量的增加呈先降低后增加的趋势; 花生叶片SPAD值与冠层吸收性光合有效辐射量和分量在施氮量为135 kg·hm−2时显著增加, 施氮后花生各生育期根系总长、总表面积、总体积和根平均直径分别增加41.03%、22.36%、38.71%和12.19%。氮肥利用率在施氮量为135 kg·hm−2时最大, 氮肥农学效率和氮肥偏生产力随施氮量的增加逐渐降低。合理施氮可显著提高夏花生产量、改善品质、促进氮素积累利用并显著改善生育期光温生理性能。本试验条件下夏花生推荐施氮量为110~150 kg·hm−2

     

    Abstract: Unreasonable application of nitrogen fertilizer leads to resource waste and affects the normal growth, development, yield, and quality of peanuts. The study aimed to investigate the impact of varying nitrogen application rates on the yield, quality, nitrogen accumulation dynamics, physiological characteristics to light and temperature, and root morphology of summer peanuts. The findings aim to offer insights for the efficient and scientific application of nitrogen fertilizers in peanuts. A field experiment on nitrogen fertilizer application was conducted in Wenxian County, Jiaozuo City, Henan Province, from 2021 to 2022. The tested variety was ‘Yuhua 22’ with five nitrogen fertilizer treatments of 0, 45, 90, 135, and 180 kg·hm−2. The study assessed the yield and quality indicators of summer peanut pods, at the mature stage, and the soil-plant analysis development (SPAD) value, canopy photosynthetic effective radiation, and canopy temperature were conducted at various stages namely the seedling, flowering-pegging, pod-setting, and pod-filling stages. Plant samples were collected to analyze nitrogen accumulation and root morphology. With an increasing nitrogen application rate, the peanut pod yield could be fitted by “linear + platform trends” in both years, with suitable nitrogen application rates of 150 and 113 kg·hm−2, respectively. Nitrogen application increased the yield by an average of 18.86%. The crude protein, oil, and amino acid contents in grain at maturity first increased and then stabilized with an increasing nitrogen application rate. Compared to zero nitrogen application, the application of nitrogen led to notable effects, with average increases of 7.51%, 3.10%, and 10.08%, in crude protein, oil, and amino acid contents in grains respectively. The nitrogen accumulation amount of summer peanuts was fitted using nonlinear regression using a logistic equation. It was concluded that nitrogen application could increase the maximum and average accumulation rates, accelerate the rapid accumulation period, and promote the occurrence of peak absorption, thereby increasing the maximum nitrogen accumulation in peanuts and promoting sustainable and rapid growth of summer peanuts. The maximum, minimum, and mean canopy temperatures at each growth stage firstly decreased then increased with increasing nitrogen application rate; the SPAD value of peanut leaves and the photosynthetic active radiation and components of the canopy significantly increased with nitrogen application at 135 kg·hm−2. The total root length, total root surface area, total root volume, and average root diameter of peanuts increased by 41.03%, 22.36%, 38.71%, and 12.19% at each growth stage after nitrogen application. The nitrogen fertilizer utilization efficiency was the highest under the nitrogen application rate of 135 kg·hm−2. Meanwhile, increasing the nitrogen application rate gradually decreased agricultural efficiency and partial productivity. Reasonable nitrogen application can significantly increase the yield and quality of summer peanuts, promote nitrogen accumulation and utilization, and improve the physiological performance of light and temperature during growth. The recommended nitrogen application rate for summer peanuts under this test condition is 110−150 kg·hm−2.

     

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