王治统, 凌俊, 刘子熙, 赵德强, 李泽学, 周顺利, 袁兴茂, 李霄鹤, 温媛. 秸秆还田方式对土壤理化性质和玉米产量的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(4): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230517
引用本文: 王治统, 凌俊, 刘子熙, 赵德强, 李泽学, 周顺利, 袁兴茂, 李霄鹤, 温媛. 秸秆还田方式对土壤理化性质和玉米产量的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(4): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230517
WANG Z T, LING J, LIU Z X, ZHAO D Q, LI Z X, ZHOU S L, YUAN X M, LI X H, WEN Y. Effect of straw return practices on soil physico-chemical properties and maize yield[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(4): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230517
Citation: WANG Z T, LING J, LIU Z X, ZHAO D Q, LI Z X, ZHOU S L, YUAN X M, LI X H, WEN Y. Effect of straw return practices on soil physico-chemical properties and maize yield[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(4): 1−12. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230517

秸秆还田方式对土壤理化性质和玉米产量的影响

Effect of straw return practices on soil physico-chemical properties and maize yield

  • 摘要: 高强度集约化农业生产导致耕地质量下降、农田土壤退化, 而秸秆还田是改善土壤环境、提高土壤有机质的重要途径。目前的秸秆还田方式主要针对表层土壤, 忽略了对底土质量的改善效果。本研究设置了秸秆富集深层还田、秸秆覆盖还田、秸秆浅旋还田、秸秆深翻还田、秸秆不还田5种秸秆还田方式, 以探究不同秸秆还田方式对不同土层土壤理化性质和玉米产量的影响, 为高效利用秸秆资源、提高土壤质量和作物产量提供科学依据。本研究结果表明: 秸秆覆盖还田提高了0~20 cm土层土壤含水量、有机碳含量、氮循环酶活性; 深翻还田提高了表层土壤水分含量与磷循环酶活性; 秸秆富集深层还田显著降低了20~40 cm土层土壤容重、增加了土壤含水量、有机碳含量、全氮含量、矿质氮含量以及胞外酶活性。与不还田相比, 秸秆还田处理下玉米产量显著提高13.4%~21.0%。因此, 秸秆还田是秸秆资源有效利用的重要方式, 有利于改善农田土壤环境, 提高土壤养分含量, 减少化肥使用, 促进作物增产, 对农业可持续发展具有重要意义。秸秆富集深层还田对于改善底土质量, 扩大土壤碳库, 提高耕地质量和土地生产力具有重要作用, 可以作为构建深厚肥沃耕层的有效措施。

     

    Abstract: Highly intensive agricultural production has led to a decline in the quality of cultivated land and soil degradation. Straw return is an important method for improving the soil environment and increasing soil organic matter content. However, the current method of straw return mainly focuses on the surface soil, ignoring its effects on improving the quality of the subsoil. Five straw return practices were investigated: deep-injected straw incorporation (DI-SI), straw mulching (SM), straw incorporation (SI), deep-ploughed straw incorporation (DP-SI), and straw removal (SR). The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of various straw return methods on the physical and chemical properties of different soil layers and maize yield. The aim is to offer scientific evidence for the efficient utilization of straw resources and contribute to enhancing soil quality and crop yield. The results showed that straw mulching increased soil water content, soil organic carbon, and N-acquisition enzyme activities in the 0−20 cm soil layer; deep-plughed straw incorporation increased soil water content and P-acquisition enzyme activities in the surface soil. Deep-injected straw incorporation significantly decreased soil bulk density and increased soil water content, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen content, mineral nitrogen content, and extracellular enzyme activities in the 20−40 cm soil layer. Compared with straw removal, straw return methods significantly increased maize yield by 13.4%−21.0%. Therefore, straw return is an important way to efficiently utilize straw resources, which is conducive to improving the soil environment of farmlands, increasing soil nutrient content, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers, promoting crop yield, and significantly contributing to the sustainable development of agriculture. Deep-injected straw incorporation plays an important role in improving subsoil quality, expanding the soil carbon pool, and improving cultivated land quality and productivity, and can be considered an effective measure to build a deep and fertile plow layer.

     

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