张潇, 李岚涛, 耿赛男, 杨启睿, 苗玉红, 王宜伦. 施钾对夏玉米产量、钾素积累动态及光温生理特性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(4): 1−10. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230435
引用本文: 张潇, 李岚涛, 耿赛男, 杨启睿, 苗玉红, 王宜伦. 施钾对夏玉米产量、钾素积累动态及光温生理特性的影响[J]. 中国生态农业学报 (中英文), 2024, 32(4): 1−10. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230435
ZHANG X, LI L T, GENG S N, YANG Q R, MIAO Y H, WANG Y L. Effects of potassium application on yield, potassium accumulation dynamics, and light-temperature physiological characteristics of summer maize[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(4): 1−10. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230435
Citation: ZHANG X, LI L T, GENG S N, YANG Q R, MIAO Y H, WANG Y L. Effects of potassium application on yield, potassium accumulation dynamics, and light-temperature physiological characteristics of summer maize[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2024, 32(4): 1−10. DOI: 10.12357/cjea.20230435

施钾对夏玉米产量、钾素积累动态及光温生理特性的影响

Effects of potassium application on yield, potassium accumulation dynamics, and light-temperature physiological characteristics of summer maize

  • 摘要: 为给夏玉米科学施钾提供参考依据, 2021—2022年在河南省温县开展钾肥用量田间试验, 以‘隆玉369’为试验材料, 研究0 kg∙hm−2 (K0)、40 kg∙hm−2 (K40)、80 kg∙hm−2 (K80)、120 kg∙hm−2 (K120)和160 kg∙hm−2 (K160) 5个钾(K2O)肥用量对夏玉米株高、叶面积、叶片SPAD值、冠层光合有效辐射、冠层温度和抗氧化酶活性等理化指标及钾素利用效率的影响。结果表明: 2021年和2022年施钾处理分别增产4.9%~6.6%和7.4%~9.6%, 且产量增幅随钾肥用量增加呈“先升高后趋于稳定”趋势, 最佳施钾量分别为80 kg·hm−2和87 kg·hm−2。施钾可提升夏玉米株高、叶面积和叶片SPAD值, 促进夏玉米生长发育和干物质积累。Logistic方程拟合表明, 钾素吸收总量与最大积累速率以K80、K120最佳, 分别较K0提高22.5%、28.3%与29.2%、37.5%, 此外, 最大速率出现时间缩短3~4 d。进一步研究表明, 施钾(K2O)量为80~120 kg·hm−2可有效增强夏玉米群体光合有效辐射分量, 降低冠层温度, 提升超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶和过氧化氢酶活性。综上所述, 施钾可提高夏玉米产量, 促进夏玉米生长发育和钾素吸收利用, 增强各生育期光温生理特性和抗氧化酶活性, 豫北夏玉米适宜施钾(K2O)量为80~120 kg·hm−2

     

    Abstract: This study aimed to explore the effects of potassium application rates on the yield, dynamics of nutrient accumulation, and photosynthetic and thermal physiological characteristics of summer maize, identify the optimal potassium rates, and provide a reference for the scientific application of potassium in summer maize. Field experiments were conducted during two consecutive growing seasons (2021 and 2022) in Wenxian County, Henan Province, China. The maize variety ‘Longyu 369’ was used as the test material. The detailed potassium fertilization treatments (K2O) in the two growing seasons were 0 (K0), 40 (K40), 80 (K80), 120 (K120), and 160 (K160) kg·hm−2. Plant height, leaf area, leaf SPAD value, photosynthetically active radiation, canopy temperature, antioxidant enzyme activity, and potassium utilization efficiency of summer maize were determined and analyzed. The results showed that the application of potassium fertilizer significantly increased the summer maize yield. Compared with the K0, potassium application increased the maize yield by 4.9%−6.6% and 7.4%−9.6% in 2021 and 2022, respectively, and the optimal economic potassium rates were 80 and 87 kg·hm−2, respectively. Moreover, potassium application significantly increased plant height, leaf area, and leaf SPAD values in summer maize. Logistic equation fitting showed that the optimal treatments for total potassium absorption and maximum accumulation rate were K80 and K120, respectively. Compared with K0, potassium absorption and accumulation increased by 22.5% and 28.3% on average for K80 and 29.2% and 37.5% on average for K120, respectively. Additionally, to maximum potassium accumulation the time of maximum rate of occurrence could be shortened by 3–4 days. This research also showed that the suitable potassium application rates of 80–120 kg·hm−2 could effectively enhance the photosynthetically active radiation fraction, reduce canopy temperature, and increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT). Therefore, reasonable potassium application could significantly increase the yield, promote growth and potassium absorption utilization, and enhance the photosynthetic and thermal physiological and antioxidant enzyme activity characteristics of summer maize. The recommended potassium rates based on the experiments are between 80 and 120 kg·hm−2.

     

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