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稻虾共作模式的“双刃性”及可持续发展策略

曹凑贵 江洋 汪金平 袁鹏丽 陈松文

曹凑贵, 江洋, 汪金平, 袁鹏丽, 陈松文. 稻虾共作模式的“双刃性”及可持续发展策略[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(9): 1245-1253. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170739
引用本文: 曹凑贵, 江洋, 汪金平, 袁鹏丽, 陈松文. 稻虾共作模式的“双刃性”及可持续发展策略[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(9): 1245-1253. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170739
CAO Cougui, JIANG Yang, WANG Jinping, YUAN Pengli, CHEN Songwen. 'Dual character' of rice-crayfish culture and strategies for its sustainable development[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(9): 1245-1253. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170739
Citation: CAO Cougui, JIANG Yang, WANG Jinping, YUAN Pengli, CHEN Songwen. "Dual character" of rice-crayfish culture and strategies for its sustainable development[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(9): 1245-1253. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170739

稻虾共作模式的“双刃性”及可持续发展策略

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.170739
基金项目: 

国家重点研发专项 2017YFD0301400

和湖北省自然基金创新群体项目 2016CFA017

详细信息
    作者简介:

    曹凑贵, 主要研究方向为农业生态与可持续耕作制度。E-mail:ccgui@mail.hzau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: S344.9

"Dual character" of rice-crayfish culture and strategies for its sustainable development

Funds: 

the State Key Special Program 2017YFD0301400

Hubei Natural Science Foundation 2016CFA017

More Information
  • 摘要: 近年来,稻虾[水稻-克氏原螯虾(小龙虾)]共作模式由于其较高的综合效益而在全国范围内得以大力发展。其中以湖北省稻虾共作发展最为迅速,面积大,技术也较为成熟,并形成了"潜江模式"。本文介绍了稻虾共作模式的特点及其发展情况,以湖北省稻虾共作模式为研究对象,采用产业调查,结合试验示范和定位试验,研究了稻虾共作模式的生产和生态效应,重点分析了稻虾共作模式的"双刃性"。稻虾共作模式的"双刃性"主要体现在(1)稳粮增效,但同时存在重虾轻稻的现象:稻虾共作模式较传统水稻单作模式可增产4.63%~14.01%,改善稻米品质,但部分稻虾共作模式中忽略水稻的管理,导致水稻产量偏低;(2)提高土壤肥力,但同时加剧了土壤次生潜育化:稻虾共作模式土壤中易氧化态有机碳(ROC)、全氮、全磷、全钾含量要高于传统水稻单作模式,但稻虾共作模式土壤颜色偏暗,土壤结构更为紧密,潜育化明显;(3)涵养水源,但同时可能增加水资源消耗:稻虾共作模式中地下水位高的稻田水分利用率提高,储水功能增强,但地下水位低的稻田可能增加50%~80%的耗水量;(4)减肥减药、提高水体养分含量,但同时增加了水体富营养化的风险:稻虾共作模式肥料和农药成本分别降低了79.5%和50.0%,稻虾共作模式田面水的全氮、全磷含量及硝态氮、氨态氮含量均高于水稻单作;(5)虫害减轻,但某些病害加重,同时生物多样性发生变化:稻虾共作模式螟虫发生减轻,但基腐病加重,生物多样性随共作年限先降低后又增高。根据以上现状与问题,本研究提出了稻虾共作的模式优化及建议,如因地制宜,避免盲目发展;研究标准,规范化发展;优化模式,科学水肥调控;因势利导,防治病虫草害,为稻虾共作模式的可持续发展提供依据。
  • 图  1  稻虾共作田间工程示意图

    Figure  1.  Field layout of rice-crayfish culture system

    图  2  稻虾共作模式示意图

    Figure  2.  Diagram for rice-crayfish culture system

    图  3  湖北省及重点县市稻虾共作面积变化

    Figure  3.  Changes of areas of rice-crayfish culture in Hubei Province and typical city (county)

    图  4  2016年湖北省稻虾共作田不同水稻品种产量差异

    Figure  4.  Yields of different rice varieties in rice-crayfish culture field in 2016 in Hubei Province

    图  5  稻虾共作田与水稻单作田的土壤剖面

    RC5、RC2和R分别为稻虾共作5年、2年和0年(水稻单作)。

    Figure  5.  Soil profiles of rice-crayfish culture and conventional rice culture

    RC5 and RC2 mean rice-crayfish culture for 5 and 2 years of rice-crayfish culture. R means conventional rice culture.

    图  6  稻虾共作与水稻单作的土壤脲酶(A)和过氧化氢酶(B)活性

    RC10、RC5、RC2和R分别为稻虾共作10年、5年、2年和0年(水稻单作)。

    Figure  6.  Activities of soil urease (A) and hydrogen peroxidase (B) of rice-crayfish field and conventional rice field

    RC10, RC5 and RC2 mean rice-crayfish culture for 10, 5 and 2 years of rice-crayfish culture. R means conventional rice culture.

    图  7  稻虾共作系统与水稻单作系统的水循环

    Figure  7.  Water cycle of rice-crayfish culture and conventional rice culture

    图  8  稻虾共作与水稻单作的成本投入

    Figure  8.  Cost inputs of rice-crayfish culture and conventional rice culture

    图  9  稻虾共作与水稻单作田面水中养分含量

    Figure  9.  Nutrients concentrations in surface water of rice-crayfish field and conventional rice field

    图  10  稻虾共作田杂草数量随共作年限的变化

    Figure  10.  Change of weeds quantities in rice-crayfish field with years

    图  11  稻虾共作系统物种丰富度的变化

    Figure  11.  Change of species richness in rice-crayfish culture system

    表  1  不同稻虾处理模式对水稻产量及品质的影响

    Table  1.   Effect of different treatments of rice-crayfish culture on rice yield and quality

    处理
    Treatment
    产量Yield 品质Quality
    产量
    Yield (t·hm-2)
    增产
    Increasing rate (%)
    垩白率
    Chalky percentage (%)
    垩白度
    Chalky ratio (%)
    稻虾共作
    Rice-crayfish
    culture
    F+NSR 9.6a 14.01 20.8c 6.6c
    F+SR 9.43a 12.00 19.8c 7.6bc
    NF+NSR 8.96ab 6.41 27.2b 8.2b
    NF+SR 8.81b 4.63 23.8bc 7.1c
    水稻单作Conventional rice culture 8.42b 30.3a 9.7a
     F:投放饵料; NF:不投放饵料; SR:秸秆还田; NSR:秸秆不还田。同列不同小写字母表示在P < 0.05水平差异显著。F: crayfish feeding; NF: non crayfish feeding; SR: straw return; NSR: non-straw return. Different lowercase letters in the same column mean significant differences at P < 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  稻虾共作与水稻单作土壤活性有机碳库和营养物质含量

    Table  2.   Soil labile organic carbon pool and nutrients contents of rice-crayfish culture and conventional rice culture

    处理
    Treatment
    活性有机碳Labile organic carbon pool 养分Nutrient
    易氧化态有机碳
    Readily oxidizable
    organic carbon (mg·kg-1)
    溶解性有机碳
    Dissolved organic carbon
    (mg·kg-1)
    全氮
    Total nitrogen
    (g·kg-1)
    全磷
    Total phosphorus
    (g·kg-1)
    全钾
    Total potassium
    (g·kg-1)
    稻虾共作
    Rice-crayfish culture
    5.55a 110.5b 1.01a 1.11a 13.20a
    水稻单作
    Conventional rice culture
    3.43b 138.5a 0.32b 1.02b 11.45b
     同列不同小写字母表示在P < 0.05水平上差异显著。Different lowercase letters in the same column mean significant differences at P < 0.05 level.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同年限稻虾共作稻田病虫害发生情况

    Table  3.   Pests and diseases occurrence in rice-crayfish fields cultured for different years

    稻虾共作年限
    Rice-crayfish year
    (a)
    稻飞虱数量
    Planthopper
    (individuals·m-2)
    枯心率
    Dead heart
    rate (%)
    卷叶率
    Roled leaf
    rate (%)
    蜘蛛数量
    Spider
    (individuals·m-2)
    稻曲病株数
    False smut
    (plants·m-2)
    基腐病发病率
    Basal rot rate
    (%)
    0 380 5.2 9.8 20 24 5.2
    1 634 3.2 5.4 22 22 5.6
    2 350 1.9 4.9 20 20 17.8
    3 0 0.5 10.7 25 3 19.3
    6 0 0.8 2.2 28 7 28.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  稻虾共作田和水稻单作田二化螟幼虫越冬基数

    Table  4.   Over-wintering cardinal larvae numbers of Chilo suppressalis in rice-crayfish field and conventional rice field

    时间
    Time
    调查点1 Location 1 调查点2 Location 2 调查点3 Location 3
    水稻单作
    Conventional
    rice culture
    稻虾共作
    Rice-crayfish
    culture
    水稻单作
    Conventional rice
    culture
    稻虾共作
    Rice-crayfish
    culture
    水稻单作
    Conventional rice
    culture
    稻虾共作
    Rice-crayfish
    culture
    冬前Before wintere 27A 13B 12A 5B 23A 13B
    冬后After winter 21A 0B 9A 0B 19A 0B
     同一调查点同行不同大字母表示不同稻作模式在P < 0.01水平差异显著。Different capital letters mean significant differences at P < 0.01 level between conventional rice culture and rice-crayfish culture within one location.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  5  稻虾共作田和水稻单作田昆虫数量

    Table  5.   Insects numbers in rice-crayfish field and conventional rice field

    稻虾共作年限
    Rice-crayfish years
    (a)
    植食性昆虫
    Herbivorous
    insects
    (individuals·m-2)
    捕食性昆虫
    Predatory insects
    (individuals·m-2)
    中性昆虫
    Neutral insects
    (individuals·m-2)
    寄生性昆虫
    Parasitic insects
    (individuals·m-2)
    总数
    Total amount
    (individuals·m-2)
    0 21.0cd 6.3cd 24.0b 1.3c 52.6b
    1 20.3de 5.0de 20.0cd 0.3e 45.6c
    2 18.7e 4.1e 18.0d 0.7d 41.5c
    3 23.3bc 7.0c 21.7c 1.5bc 53.5b
    4 25.4b 9.0b 32.0a 1.7b 68.1a
    9 29.3a 11.7a 31.3a 2.3a 74.6a
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2017-07-29
  • 录用日期:  2017-08-14
  • 刊出日期:  2017-09-01

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