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植物化感物质对种子萌发的影响及其生态学意义

陈锋 孟永杰 帅海威 罗晓峰 周文冠 刘建伟 杨文钰 舒凯

陈锋, 孟永杰, 帅海威, 罗晓峰, 周文冠, 刘建伟, 杨文钰, 舒凯. 植物化感物质对种子萌发的影响及其生态学意义[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(1): 36-46. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160632
引用本文: 陈锋, 孟永杰, 帅海威, 罗晓峰, 周文冠, 刘建伟, 杨文钰, 舒凯. 植物化感物质对种子萌发的影响及其生态学意义[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2017, 25(1): 36-46. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160632
CHEN Feng, MENG Yongjie, SHUAI Haiwei, LUO Xiaofeng, ZHOU Wenguan, LIU Jianwei, YANG Wenyu, SHU Kai. Effect of plant allelochemicals on seed germination and its ecological significance[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(1): 36-46. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160632
Citation: CHEN Feng, MENG Yongjie, SHUAI Haiwei, LUO Xiaofeng, ZHOU Wenguan, LIU Jianwei, YANG Wenyu, SHU Kai. Effect of plant allelochemicals on seed germination and its ecological significance[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2017, 25(1): 36-46. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160632

植物化感物质对种子萌发的影响及其生态学意义

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.160632
基金项目: 

四川省教育厅基金项目 16ZB0040

中国博士后科学基金项目 2014M552377

中国博士后科学基金项目 2016T90868

国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目 2011CB100402

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    杨文钰, 主要从事大豆栽培生理研究, E-mail:mssiyangwy@sicau.edu.cn

    舒凯, 主要从事植物遗传学及分子生物学研究, E-mail:kshu@sicau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: Q945.34

Effect of plant allelochemicals on seed germination and its ecological significance

Funds: 

the Project of Education Department of Sichuan Province 16ZB0040

the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China 2014M552377

the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation of China 2016T90868

the National Basic Research Program of China 2011CB100402

More Information
  • 摘要: 化感现象作为植物之间的一种相互作用方式,在农林业生产中广泛存在。合理利用植物之间的化感作用,对于生产实践具有重要的指导意义。研究表明,化感物质可促进或抑制不同物种种子的萌发过程,这对于植物的生长发育、植物群落的组成与分布以及生态系统的平衡有着重要影响。本文从化感物质对种子萌发的影响与其生态学意义两个方面进行了综述。一方面,在阐述化感作用影响种子萌发的基础上,进一步总结了化感物质抑制植物种子萌发的生理生化机制。包括:化感物质通过抑制胚根和胚轴的伸长,破坏亚细胞结构,干扰植物激素及活性氧的合成与代谢,造成细胞损伤,从而阻碍种子萌发;抑制种子中储存物质的代谢,阻碍种子萌发过程中的物质以及能量转换,导致种子萌发受阻等。另一方面,本文从化感作用在抑制农田杂草及影响生态系统稳定性两个方面,阐述了化感物质调控种子萌发的生态学意义。讨论了农作物的化感抑草作用,农林业生产中的化感自毒作用以及化感作用造成的生物入侵等,以期为农林业生产提供借鉴。最后,根据目前研究进展,对本领域未来研究方向进行了展望和讨论。
  • 图  1  植物化感物质进入环境的4种途径

    图中编号表示化感物质进入环境的途径: ①自然挥发; ②雨雾淋溶; ③根系分泌; ④植株腐解。其中α-蒎烯、胡桃醌、香草酸以及对羟基苯甲酸分别代表以上4种方式释放入环境中的典型化感物质。图中红色箭头表示供体植物释放挥发性化感物质直接作用于受体植物; 蓝色箭头表示供体植物释放的化感物质进入土壤后作用于受体植物; 绿色箭头表示供体植物释放的化感物质进入土壤, 在土壤介质的作用下发生改变(化感物质被活化或者被转变为其他物质)后作用于受体植物。This figure shows the four ways by which plant allelochemicals enter into the environment. ① indicates volatilization; ② indicates leaching; ③indicates rootexudation; and ④ indicates decomposition of plant residues in soil. In this figure, α-pinene, juglone, vanillic acid and parahydroxy benzoic acid are the typical allelochemicals released into the environment through the above four ways, respectively. Red arrow indicates that the donor plants release volatile allelochemicals acting on the acceptor plant directly. Blue arrow indicates that the allelochemicals released by the donor plant act on the acceptor plants after entering into the soil. Green arrow indicates allelochemicals released by the donor plants change (activated or converted into other substances) in soil, and then act on the acceptor plant.

    Figure  1.  Four ways of plant allelochemicals entering into the environment

    图  2  外来物种进入本地生态系统后的3种发展方向

    实线框表示外来物种与当地物种共同建立稳定的生态系统; 虚线框表示外来物种造成生物入侵; 点划线框部分表示外来物种逐渐消亡。Solid line boxes in the figure indicate that alien species establish a stable ecological system with the local species. Dashed line boxes in the figure indicate that alien species cause biological invasion. Dash dotted line boxes in the figure indicate that the alien species are disappearing gradually.

    Figure  2.  Three types of destiny after alien species entering into the local ecosystem

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  • 收稿日期:  2016-07-17
  • 录用日期:  2016-09-14
  • 刊出日期:  2017-01-01

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