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乡村振兴视域下的乡村民宿发展研究——以增城“万家旅舍”为例

赵飞 姜苗苗 章家恩 聂瑞

赵飞, 姜苗苗, 章家恩, 聂瑞. 乡村振兴视域下的乡村民宿发展研究——以增城“万家旅舍”为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(2): 218-226. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180593
引用本文: 赵飞, 姜苗苗, 章家恩, 聂瑞. 乡村振兴视域下的乡村民宿发展研究——以增城“万家旅舍”为例[J]. 中国生态农业学报(中英文), 2019, 27(2): 218-226. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180593
ZHAO Fei, JIANG Miaomiao, ZHANG Jia'en, NIE Rui. Research on the rural homestay inn development under the view of rural revi-talization: A case of 'Ten Thousand Hostels' in Zengcheng District, Guangzhou City[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(2): 218-226. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180593
Citation: ZHAO Fei, JIANG Miaomiao, ZHANG Jia'en, NIE Rui. Research on the rural homestay inn development under the view of rural revi-talization: A case of "Ten Thousand Hostels" in Zengcheng District, Guangzhou City[J]. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 2019, 27(2): 218-226. doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180593

乡村振兴视域下的乡村民宿发展研究——以增城“万家旅舍”为例

doi: 10.13930/j.cnki.cjea.180593
基金项目: 

广东省软科学计划项目 2016A070705043

详细信息
    作者简介:

    赵飞, 主要研究方向为农业遗产与乡村旅游。E-mail:zhaofei@scau.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    章家恩, 主要研究方向为农业生态学等。E-mail:jeanzh@scau.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: F590.8

Research on the rural homestay inn development under the view of rural revi-talization: A case of "Ten Thousand Hostels" in Zengcheng District, Guangzhou City

Funds: 

the Soft Science Project of Guangdong Province 2016A070705043

More Information
  • 摘要: 近年来,中国乡村民宿蓬勃发展,业已成为助推乡村振兴的重要途径。2014年以来,广州市增城区通过实施打造"万家旅舍"民宿品牌,实现了乡村民宿产业的飞跃发展,对该模式进行评估是现实需要,也具有示范价值。本文首先总结了乡村民宿发展及相关研究进展概况,随后以万家旅舍为研究对象,采用实地调查、深度访谈等研究方法,对增城区乡村民宿的经营模式进行了总结与评估。结果表明,乡村民宿产业的发展,从盘活闲置住房、带动农村居民创业就业、改善农村居住环境、推动产业融合发展等方面带动了乡村振兴;乡村民宿以农户自主经营型为主,其经营多依赖于地方旅游产业的发展水平和发展模式,存在产品同质化现象较为严重、市场缺少细分、竞争激烈等问题;企业经营型民宿正处于快速发展阶段,呈现出多种经营模式,但行业界限较为模糊。增城万家旅舍的成功经验以及面对的问题在国内具有代表性,应对乡村振兴战略的需要,政府及行业层面应采取以下对策推动乡村民宿产业发展:完善相关法规,以全域旅游促民宿发展,助力乡村产业兴旺;打造特色民宿,注入更多乡土元素,助力乡村文化建设;发展生态民宿,带动周边环境与设施建设,助力乡村生态文明建设;提高从业人员素质,吸引乡村创客,助力乡村人才振兴。
  • 表  1  27家受访民宿的区位、设施与经营概况

    Table  1.   The location, facilities and operation of 27 surveyed homestay inns

    民宿编号1)
    Number
    所在镇街
    Location
    设施与服务
    Facilities & services
    订房价格2)
    Room price
    周边旅游开发情况
    Tourism development nearby
    A1 派潭
    Paitan
    9间, 别墅2栋; 含餐饮、棋牌、烧烤等服务
    9 rooms, 2 villas; services cover catering, chess & cards, barbecue, etc.
    单间118元起, 别墅每栋600元起。≥118 ¥ per room; ≥600 ¥ per villa 紧邻白水寨, 附近有温泉度假区Baishuizhai scenic area and some hot spring resorts are around
    A2 派潭
    Paitan
    12间, 别墅1栋; 含餐饮、棋牌、烧烤等服务
    12 rooms, 1 villa; services cover catering, chess & cards, barbecue, etc.
    同上Ditto 同上Ditto
    A3 派潭
    Paitan
    9间; 含餐饮、棋牌等服务
    9 rooms; services cover catering, chess & cards, etc.
    138元起≥138 ¥ 同上Ditto
    A4 派潭
    Paitan
    11间; 含棋牌等服务
    11 rooms; services cover chess & cards, etc.
    85元起≥85 ¥ 同上Ditto
    A5 派潭
    Paitan
    17间; 旧学校改造
    17 rooms; remodeled from an abandoned-school
    100元起≥100 ¥ 同上Ditto
    A6 派潭
    Paitan
    22间; 含钓鱼、农事体验等服务
    22 rooms; services cover fishing, farming experience, etc.
    200元左右
    About 200 ¥
    老宅部分为清代建筑
    Some houses were built in the age of the Qing Dynasty.
    A7 正果
    Zhengguo
    9间; 含餐饮、农事体验等服务
    9 rooms; services cover fishing, farming experience, etc.
    100元左右About 100 ¥ 游客可在附近登山、游水
    The guest can climb mountains and swim nearby.
    A8 荔城
    Licheng
    3间; 含餐饮、自行车租赁等服务
    3 rooms; services cover catering, bike renting, etc.
    120元起≥120 ¥ 莲塘春色景区内
    Located in the Liantang Spring scenic area
    A9 荔城
    Licheng
    6间; 含餐饮、自行车租赁等服务
    6 rooms; services cover catering, bike renting, etc.
    同上Ditto 同上Ditto
    A10 正果
    Zhengguo
    9间; 含棋牌、烧烤等服务
    9 rooms; services cover chess & cards, barbecue, etc.
    150元起≥150 ¥ 蒙花布乡村公园内
    Located in the Menghuabu rural park
    A11 正果
    Zhengguo
    8间; 含棋牌、土特产销售、自行车租赁等服务
    8 rooms; services cover chess & cards, local product sales, bike renting, etc.
    同上Ditto 同上Ditto
    A12 正果
    Zhengguo
    3间3 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto
    A13 正果
    Zhengguo
    7间7 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto
    A14 正果
    Zhengguo
    9间9 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto
    A15 正果
    Zhengguo
    11间11 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto
    A16 正果
    Zhengguo
    6间6 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto
    A17 正果
    Zhengguo
    4间4 rooms 同上Ditto 同上Ditto
    A18 正果
    Zhengguo
    7间; 含棋牌、烧烤等服务
    7 rooms; services cover chess & cards, barbecue, etc.
    同上Ditto 同上Ditto
    B1 派潭
    Paitan
    27间; 含棋牌、品茗、餐饮等服务
    27 rooms; services cover chess & cards, drinking tea, catering, etc.
    780元起≥780 ¥ 白水寨景区内
    Located in the Baishuizhai scenic area
    B2 派潭
    Paitan
    12间; 含会议、露营、烧烤及婚礼等服务
    12 rooms; services cover meeting, camping, barbecue, wedding feast, etc.
    360元起≥360 ¥ 紧邻白水寨, 附近有温泉度假区Baishuizhai scenic area with some hot spring resorts around
    B3 派潭
    Paitan
    13间, 外加别墅2栋; 含餐饮、品茗等服务
    13 rooms, 2 villas; services cover catering, drinking tea, etc.
    468元起≥468 ¥ 传统客家民宅风格
    Style of Hakka houses
    B4 派潭
    Paitan
    33间; 为田园综合体项目, 含餐饮、儿童乐园、温泉、品茗、书室等服务
    33 rooms; rural complex; services cover catering, children corner, hot spring, drinking tea, library, etc.
    698元起≥698 ¥ 主建筑为清至民国时期所建
    Some houses were built in the age of the Republic of China.
    B5 正果
    Zhengguo
    8间; 含KTV、烧烤、垂钓等服务
    8 rooms; services cover KTV, barbecue, fishing, etc.
    290元起≥290 ¥ 增江边, 绿道驿站, 镇旅游咨询中心Along the Zengjiang River; Greenway Service Center; Tourist Information Center
    B6 正果
    Zhengguo
    34间; 为旧厂房改建, 含健身、品茗、餐饮等服务
    34 rooms; remodeled from an abandoned factory; services cover gym, drinking tea, catering, etc.
    700元起≥700 ¥ 增江边
    Along the Zengjiang River
    B7 小楼
    Xiaolou
    28间; 含餐饮等服务
    28 rooms; services cover catering, etc.
    680元起≥680 ¥ 二龙山景区内
    Located in the Erlongshan scenic area
    B8 小楼
    Xiaolou
    9间, 别墅2栋; 含餐饮、会议、KTV、土特产销售、游泳等服务
    9 rooms, 2 villas; services cover catering, meeting, KTV, local product sales, swimming, etc.
    158元起≥158 ¥ 绿道驿站Greenway Service Center
    B9 中新
    Zhongxin
    3间, 外加别墅8栋; 含餐饮、会议、健身、养生等服务
    3 rooms, 8 villas; services cover catering, meeting, gym, regimen, etc.
    200元起≥200 ¥
    1)农户自主经营型万家旅舍编号为A, 企业经营型万家旅舍编号为B; 2)部分订房价格信息来源于增城万家旅舍旅游网。1) The “A” represents the farmer-operated homestay inns, and the “B” represents the enterprise-operated homestay inns. 2) Some of booking prices are from the Ten Thousand Hostels website.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  农户自主经营型民宿受访者的代表性观点

    Table  2.   Representative perspectives of respondents of farmer-operated homestay inns

    表达人/相关事项
    Expresser / relevant things
    代表性观点Representative point of view
    A1/市场营销
    A1 / marketing
    大多数没有什么宣传, 都是靠熟客带熟客
    Nothing has been done on marketing which mainly relied on repeat guests.
    A1/经营方式
    A1 / operating mode
    温泉酒店的房价一晚几千元钱。民宿4个房间一千来块钱左右, 再加上泡温泉100 ¥左右, 比较便宜
    In hot spring hotels, its price per room per day is several times that of homestay inn with 250 ¥ per day, plus hot spring ticket at about 100 ¥.
    A5/经营理念
    A5 / operating idea
    因没有装修, 外面看起来客人感觉很一般, 到里面看了之后, 感觉还好。所以外表就不去怎么装修了, 可以省钱
    Guests don’t care much about exterior decoration of inns. So, it’s unwise to spend a lot of money on it.
    A5/市场营销
    A5 / marketing
    我们很少宣传, 因为才十多间房, 宣传出去的话, 没有地方给客人住
    We have no need to attract more guests because we just have more than ten rooms.
    A7/经营方式
    A7 / operating mode
    大家是家庭小本经营。只在特别忙的时候, 才会去请一些人, 按天计算费用
    It just is a small business run by a single family. Only when we are busy we can employ some people, and the pay is calculated on a daily basis.
    A8/经营理念
    A8 / operating idea
    我的想法就是客人来了就不想走, 同时不要跟别人学
    My aim is that guests don’t want to leave after they visited here. I don’t need to follow other peers.
    A9/问题困难
    A9 / difficulty
    晚上住在这里, 除了烧烤, 没什么娱乐活动, 也没好逛的。第2天行程同样是骑自行车。景点不大, 顾客没必要留两天
    Beside the barbecue, guests remaining here at night have no choice for recreation. The spot area is small and there is no new thing for the next day. So, most guests don’t like coming here for a two-day travel.
    A11/经营理念
    A11 / operating idea
    游客来到这里, 我们要有热情, 没有热情就没有回头客
    We need to have passion for the business, otherwise no guests come here.
    A12/经营方式
    A12 / operating mode
    房子就3间, 又不是套房。游客太少, 我们只有旺季才做
    There are only three rooms, no suites. Ordinarily not much business is done.
    A14/经营方式
    A14 / operating mode
    周一至周五是180 ¥, 周末就是200 ¥, 但在国庆、五一这种假日会加一点
    The cost of one room is 180 ¥ in weekdays, 200 ¥ in weekend, and much higher in National Day and Labor Day holidays.
    A15/问题困难
    A15 / difficulty
    现在至了冬天我们就没生意, 愁!
    There is no business in winter. We are worry about this.
    A15/问题困难
    A15 / difficulty
    客人晚上出去走一下?不行, 街上有很多狗, 也没人管。你说我都怕, 那些城里来的人能不怕吗?
    There are many crazy dogs on the street. Those guests coming from the city don’t dare to go out after dark.
    A16/经营方式
    A16 / operating mode
    我和我妈管, 妈妈管的更多一些, 我主要带孩子, 年轻人谁在这里啊
    My mom and I are in charge of the business, but raising children is my main job. Young people don’t like to stay here.
    A17/经营理念
    A17 / operating idea
    有人住我就招待, 没人住我就自己住
    It’s no big deal. When no guests, we live alone.
    A18/市场营销
    A18 / marketing
    我的经营就是靠熟客。熟客打个电话过来, 有时候钥匙就给他们, 大家太熟了!
    My business depends entirely on repeat guests. We’re so familiar that sometimes I’ll give them the key after getting guest’s call.
    表达人以民宿编号表示。The expresser is represented by the number of homestay inns.
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  企业经营型民宿受访者的代表性观点

    Table  3.   Representative perspectives of respondents of enterprise-operated homestay inns

    表达人/相关事项
    Expresser/ relevant things
    代表性观点Representative point of view
    B1/经营方式
    B1 / operating mode
    这里有很多喝茶的地方, 顾客也可以自己做饭, 有会议室, 也可以唱歌
    There are some places for drinking tea here. Guests can also cook, hold a meeting, and sing.
    B1/经营理念
    B1 / operating idea
    顾客过来就是体验民宿的, 房间太少的话, 如果是团队, 只能安排十几个人, 剩下的一半住哪里去?
    Guests come here for experiencing the homestay inns. There are many guests in the group, so if the rooms are not enough, it will be hard to arrange them.
    B1/市场营销
    B1 / marketing
    网上预订的也有, 但是比较少。老板在外面也做推广, 毕竟生意上的伙伴很多
    Only a few guests book rooms online. Some business partners of our boss come here often.
    B2/经营理念
    B2 / operating idea
    客人来到这里很放松, 我们不是主人和客人之间的关系, 更多的是一种朋友关系
    Guests are comfortable in here, and we are friends, not just the host and guest.
    B2/经营方式
    B2 / operating mode
    周末满房, 工作日的话, 开房率最好可能是50%~60%。在旅游区附近, 有这个规律
    The occupancy is always 100% in weekends, and as high as 50%-60% in weekdays. It’s a rule for the homestay inns near the scenic area.
    B3/经营理念
    B3 / operating idea
    客房中没有电视, 没有网络, 就是给顾客一个脱离世俗的环境。住房上面是可以打坐、发呆的地方, 可以看星星
    In order to provide a peaceful situation for guests, we didn’t install TV or WiFi in the room. The guest can sit lonely and see stars on the roof.
    B4/经营理念
    B4 / operating idea
    本来就是闲置房屋, 我们把它租下来, 再改造成为民宿
    We rented those abandon houses, and transformed them into a homestay inn.
    B4/经营方式
    B4 / operating mode
    员工70%都是附近的村民。因为有个扶贫项目在实施, 就优先把岗位提供给这里的村民
    70% of employees are nearby villagers. Because of a conducted poverty alleviation project, we put local recruits first.
    B5/经营方式
    B5 / operating mode
    外地客人多, 经常有人会来包场, 整栋酒店包下来
    Nonlocal guests are in the majority, and some guests often book the whole hotel.
    B5/市场营销
    B5 / marketing
    没有怎么营销。因为住的舒适, 客人来玩, 回去会告诉身边的亲戚朋友, 他们就会过来住
    We almost have done nothing on marketing. Owing to the satisfying experience, the guest persuades his friends to come here.
    B7/经营方式
    B7 / operating mode
    顾客大多是家庭或情侣, 都比较年轻。目前深圳、东莞、广州的游客比较多, 本地人少
    Most guests are one whole family or young couples, and most of them come from Shenzhen, Dongguan, and Guangzhou.
    B7/经营方式
    B7 / operating mode
    住进来免景区门票, 景区里面可以随便玩, 这是一个优势
    If someone lives here, he has no need to buy the entrance ticket of the scenic area. That’s an advantage.
    B8/经营理念
    B8 / operating idea
    今年公司也计划打造乡村旅游创客基地, 希望更多的年轻人加入进来
    We plan to build a maker base of rural tourism in this year to attract young people to join us.
    B9/经营理念
    B9 / operating idea
    我们希望的是引领潮流, 当大家都在做民宿时, 我们已经在做传统文化了
    We hope to be ahead of the trend. Now our peers are focusing the homestay itself, we have thought about the traditional culture.
    表达人以民宿编号表示。The expresser is represented by the number of homestay inns.
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2018-06-26
  • 录用日期:  2018-10-22
  • 刊出日期:  2019-02-01

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